Digital Integrated Circuits— A Design Perspective (2nd Ed). Pages · · MB (zlibraryexau2g3p_onion).pdf Astrophysics for People in a Hurry. 1. DIGITAL INTEGRATED CIRCUITS. A DESIGN PERSPECTIVE. 2 N D E DITION . Jan M. Rabaey, Anantha Chandrakasan, and Borivoje Nikolic. CONTENTS. A Historical Perspective. Issues in Digital Integrated Circuit Design. Quality Metrics of a Digital Design. Cost of an Integrated Circuit.
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Download Digital Integrated Circuits: A Design Perspective By Jan M Rabaey – Progressive in content and form, this practical book successfully bridges the gap . Jan M. Rabaey, Anantha Chandrakasan, and Borivoje Nikolic Issues in Digiital Integrated Circuit Design. Quality Metrics of a Digital Design. CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION. A Historical Perspective. Issues in Digital Integrated Circuit Design. Quality Metrics of a Digital Design.
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Hit a particularly tricky question? Bookmark it to easily review again before an exam. The best part? They first enter a pre-heat zone, where the temperature of the board and all the components is gradually, uniformly raised.
The boards then enter a zone where the temperature is high enough to melt the solder particles in the solder paste, bonding the component leads to the pads on the circuit board. The surface tension of the molten solder helps keep the components in place, and if the solder pad geometries are correctly designed, surface tension automatically aligns the components on their pads. There are a number of techniques  for reflowing solder.
One is to use infrared lamps; this is called infrared reflow. Another is to use a hot gas convection. Another technology which is becoming popular again is special fluorocarbon liquids with high boiling points which use a method called vapor phase reflow. Due to environmental concerns, this method was falling out of favor until lead-free legislation was introduced which requires tighter controls on soldering.
At the end of , convection soldering was the most popular reflow technology using either standard air or nitrogen gas. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages.
With infrared reflow, the board designer must lay the board out so that short components don't fall into the shadows of tall components. Component location is less restricted if the designer knows that vapor phase reflow or convection soldering will be used in production. Following reflow soldering, certain irregular or heat-sensitive components may be installed and soldered by hand, or in large-scale automation, by focused infrared beam FIB or localized convection equipment.
If the circuit board is double-sided then this printing, placement, reflow process may be repeated using either solder paste or glue to hold the components in place. If a wave soldering process is used, then the parts must be glued to the board prior to processing to prevent them from floating off when the solder paste holding them in place is melted.
After soldering, the boards may be washed to remove flux residues and any stray solder balls that could short out closely spaced component leads. Rosin flux is removed with fluorocarbon solvents, high flash point hydrocarbon solvents, or low flash solvents e.
Water-soluble fluxes are removed with deionized water and detergent, followed by an air blast to quickly remove residual water. However, most electronic assemblies are made using a "No-Clean" process where the flux residues are designed to be left on the circuit board, since they are considered harmless.
This saves the cost of cleaning, speeds up the manufacturing process, and reduces waste.
Another reason to remove no-clean residues is to improve adhesion of conformal coatings and underfill materials. Proper cleaning removes all traces of solder flux, as well as dirt and other contaminants that may be invisible to the naked eye. No-Clean or other soldering processes may leave "white residues" that, according to IPC, are acceptable "provided that these residues have been qualified and documented as benign". Additionally, in some applications, such as low-end electronics, such stringent manufacturing methods are excessive both in expense and time required.
Finally, the boards are visually inspected for missing or misaligned components and solder bridging. If needed, they are sent to a rework station where a human operator repairs any errors.
This technology has proven highly efficient for process improvements and quality achievements. Much higher component density components per unit area and many more connections per component. Components can be placed on both sides of the circuit board.
Higher density of connections because holes do not block routing space on inner layers, nor on back-side layers if components are mounted on only one side of the PCB. Small errors in component placement are corrected automatically as the surface tension of molten solder pulls components into alignment with solder pads. On the other hand, through-hole components cannot be slightly misaligned, because once the leads are through the holes, the components are fully aligned and cannot move laterally out of alignment.