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According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC of the United States, people between the ages of 15 and 24 account for almost half of the 19 million new sexually transmitted infections reported each year, CDC, a , making this the highest rate of any age group CDC, b.
Although one might rationalize that a safe sex discussion is better reserved for a biology or health class, the counterargument is that with its cognitive, social, and developmental correlates and consequences, this topic is inherently linked to the science of behavior and mental processes.
Some coverage in an Introductory Psychology textbook — even one chart of diseases and risks — may help the college student population, typically emerging adults in the aforementioned at-risk age groups, make educated decisions about their and health and psychological well-being, and arguably, the health and well-being of others. Further, only about a quarter of the most required Introductory Psychology texts discussed rape, and none discussed sexual harassment.
The U. Department of Justice National Crime Victimization Survey showed that nearly a quarter of a million people in the US were raped or sexually assaulted in That is, as underscored by the Rape, Abuse, and Incest National Network , every two minutes someone in the United States is sexually assaulted.
Perhaps even two to three sentences describing the how, why, when, and who of such in a developmental or social chapter could promote awareness and decrease risk, providing an immeasurable service to textbook readers.
Similarly, sexual harassment may appear to be a topic that should be dealt with in the workforce, but again, a few lines regarding the inappropriateness of sexual commentary, jokes, and advances in the workforce can promote awareness and responsibility. Whereas percent of the books analyzed discussed homosexuality, interestingly, none discussed gay marriage — a hot topic in the United States at the present time.
A discussion of such in an Introductory Psychology course would make steps toward cultural literacy and social tolerance, promoting students' ability to recognize and respect diversity — a goal supported by the American Psychological Association Given that Goal 8 of the APA Guidelines for the Undergraduate Psychology Major is to promote student understanding of sociocultural and international diversity p.
If textbooks are to mention sexuality at all, we stress the necessity for textbooks to elaborate upon sexuality in this regard.
We respectfully urge our colleagues to include this information in future iterations of the Guidelines. Again, one cannot expect all material from a subdiscipline course to be represented in an introductory course; however, we were interested in learning the extent to which human sexuality is represented in introductory textbooks.
Introductory texts aim to impart knowledge of nomoethetic and idiographic findings about the causes, correlates, and consequences of human behavior, but in doing so they can also promote skills and values that, per the aim of the Psychology major curriculum, aid students, particularly emerging adults, in the development of lifelong learning skills and competencies APA, , p.
We therefore argue strongly that knowledge of human sexuality is essential to include therein. To summarize our analyses, we found that Introductory Psychology textbooks did indeed provide a commendable breadth and depth of human sexuality coverage.
As an example, fairly recently, a colleague at a large college in a major city in the northeast US offered to teach a course on the psychology of human sexuality and was met with great resistance — one faculty member actually asked, "Where are you going to teach that, in the gym? That is, we are likely making students more comfortable with the causes, correlates, and consequences of human sexuality through direct education or perhaps even via the mechanisms of mere exposure Zajonc, Limitations and Future Directions Our analyses focused on books required in spring It is possible that some material analyzed above has been or will be added, changed, or subtracted in subsequent editions of the textbooks.
It would be interesting to compare coverage of specific sexuality themes in newer iterations of the most required introductory psychology textbooks with the present findings.
Further, we could not ascertain how much coverage has grown or changed from previous editions to our targeted books because of a lack of access to these older books. Moreover, it would be prudent to follow the approach of Harbath and colleagues and check for accuracy of sexual content in introductory psychology texts. Misinformation in this regard can lead to life-altering or even deadly consequences. Of course, we note that even when information is included in a textbook, this does not guarantee an instructor will cover the material or require its reading for class.
We thus urge our teaching colleagues to present at least some of the basics of human sexuality to our Introductory Psychology students to promote the self-understanding, diversity inclusion, and healthy choices that can be informed from exposure to this most fundamental of human behaviors. There are definitive reasons the 14 books analyzed herein are the most frequently required in the United States.
Reviewers have noted their clarity, thoroughness, thoughtfulness of presentation, and insightful applications of psychology to the real world, as well as the texts' self-study tools and vivid imagery that help keep students engaged see College Board, , for various reviews. The purpose of the present work was not to critique these invaluable resources, but rather, to note existing textbook coverage, and to urge our respected textbook authors, teachers of psychology, and other APA authors e.
Some psychology instructors may argue that it is not our job to teach students "everything. That being said, but for sexual behavior, humanity would not exist. As long as people are here and wish to remain here, sexuality will be here. Sexual behavior serves not only to propagate the species, but also as a prominent social force. If psychology aims to encourage an understanding of the human psyche, the psychology of sexuality must be a core curricular feature.
Arila, S. Hughes, and B. Lear for their generous help with this project. References American Psychological Association. APA guidelines for the undergraduate psychology major.
Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from www.
Support center: How many undergraduates in the United States enroll in a psychology course each year? Emerging adulthood: The winding road from the late teens through the twenties. New York: Oxford University Press. Arnett, J. Emerging adulthood: What is it, and what is it good for?
Child Development Perspectives, 1, Baber, K. A postmodern feminist approach to teaching human sexuality. Family Relations, 50 1 , Bancroft, J.
This learning is an example of: A. Sociobiological B. Operant C. Oedipal D. Climacteric Blooms: Remember Difficulty: Easy This is an example of. Unlike learning theorists, psychoanalytic theorists believe that the determinants of human sexual behavior occur in early childhood.
Unlike learning theorists, psychoanalytic theorists believe that sexual behavior can be learned and changed at any time in one's lifespan. Unlike psychoanalytic theorists, learning theorists believe that the determinants of human sexual behavior occur in early childhood. Unlike psychoanalytic theorists, learning theorists believe that the determinants of sexual behavior have been hardwired into human brains by evolution.
Psychoanalytic B. Sociobiologic C. Learning D. Deterministic Blooms: Remember Difficulty: Easy It is based on the pleasure principle and thanatos. It is ineffective in the treatment of sexual disorders.
It necessitates an in-depth analysis of the person. It is based on the principles of operant conditioning. Electroconvulsive therapy B. Olfactory aversion therapy C. Homotherapy D.
Aromatherapy Blooms: Remember Difficulty: Medium Extinction B. Refraction C. Relativism D. Positivism Blooms: Remember Difficulty: Easy The patient perceives the problematic behavior to be under his or her control.
The aversive stimulus is ineffective if administered by the patient. The method cannot be used to treat deviant sexual behavior in adults.
The method mimics aromatherapy and releases fragrances that soothe the mind. It recognizes the processes of imitation and identification.
It states that sexual behavior is innate and cannot be cultivated. It proves conclusively that media has little or no influence upon young children. It proves conclusively that the environment plays no role in shaping a person's behavior. Social exchange theory B. Social stratification theory C. Existentialism D. It uses the concept of reinforcement to explain the change in relationships between people.
It assumes that we have no freedom of choice and that all events in life are predetermined. It states that humans are essentially altruistic, putting their own needs after those of others.
It refutes the theory that humans are hedonistic in nature. However, Marcie often takes him for granted and does not truly appreciate what he does for her.
According to the social exchange theory: A. Steve's rewards are greater than his costs. Steve's costs are greater than his rewards. Steve's rewards are greater than Marcie's rewards. Steve's costs are less than Marcie's costs. It applies only to people from primitive, tribal societies.
It doesn't take concepts like altruism into account. It applies only to women and not to men. It doesn't take the equity of relationships into account. It insists that psychologists should study only behaviors that can be directly observed. It believes that people's thoughts are insignificant because their actions are predetermined. It believes that it is very important to study people's thought processes.
It insists that people's perception and evaluation of events is unimportant. Gender schema allows us to process information without the influence of gender stereotypes. Gender schema predisposes us to process information based on gender. Gender schema helps us analyze information that contradicts gender stereotypes.
Gender schema makes storing information contrary to gender stereotypes easy. A male carpenter B. A female plumber C. A female taxi driver D.
A male nurse Blooms: Apply Difficulty: Medium A female nurse B. A female bouncer C. A male carpenter D. A male truck driver Blooms: Apply Difficulty: Medium Most societies allow its members freedom when it comes to expressing their sexuality. Every society regulates the sexuality of its members.
The norms and traditions of a society do not shape the sexuality of its members. Most societies allow its women more sexual freedom than men. It has no significant impact upon their sexuality. It involves teaching them appropriate norms for behavior. It is transmitted solely through the pressure exerted by peers.
It instructs them to live outside the framework of societal rules. This illustrates that the law: A. Sociobiology B. Geopolitical theory C. Psychoanalysis D. Symbolic interaction theory Blooms: Remember Difficulty: Easy It overemphasizes the role of emotions in sexual interactions. It does not acknowledge the importance of symbolic communication. It portrays humans as other-directed individuals. It does not consider rational, conscious thought.
Sexual scripts suggest that most human sexual behavior occurs spontaneously. Sexual scripts are enacted by all couples in exactly the same way. Sexual scripts help us function independent of social norms. Sexual scripts teach us the etiquette of sexual behavior. The need to decrease fertility B. The need to socialize children C.
The need to create a stable power structure D. The need to maintain stable kinship systems Blooms: Understand Difficulty: Medium Sexuality is never linked to the power structure of a society. Sexuality is closely linked to the ideologies of a society. Sexuality cannot be studied in the social context. Sexuality is not held important across cultures. How do humans choose mates according to sociobiologists? Sociobiology is defined as the application of evolutionary biology to understanding the social behavior of animals, including humans.
Sexual behavior is a form of social behavior, and so the sociobiologists try, often through observations of other species, to understand why certain patterns of sexual behavior have evolved in humans.
These in turn are probably related to the person's reproductive potential; the unhealthy are less likely to produce many vigorous offspring.
Natural selection would favor individuals preferring mates who would have maximum reproductive success. Thus, perhaps our concern with physical attractiveness is a product of evolution and natural selection. What does research say about parental investment in non-genetic offspring? According to sociobiology, parents are most interested in the survival and reproductive success of their genetic offspring. Parental investment refers to the behavior and resources invested in offspring to achieve this end.
Research indicates that fathers invest the most money on the genetic children of their current union and the least money on stepchildren from a past relationship. However, they spend an equal amount on their genetic children and the stepchildren of their current relationship, perhaps to cement the pair-bond with their current partner. Freud described the human personality as being divided into three major parts: the id, the ego, and the superego.
The id is the basic part of personality and is present at birth. It is the reservoir of psychic energy and operates on the pleasure principle, thus making it pretty irrational. The ego operates on the reality principle and tries to keep the id in line. It functions to make the person have realistic, rational interactions with people. The superego is the conscience and it operates on idealism. Thus it aims to inhibit the impulses of the id and to persuade the ego to strive for moral goals rather than realistic ones.
According to Freud, the resolution of the Oedipus complex is a key factor in personality development as, once the castration anxiety becomes too much, the boy stops desiring his mother and starts identifying with his father. He starts taking on the gender roles and characteristics expected of males by society. In comparison, in the Electra complex, the girl suffers from penis envy over the fact that she does not have a penis. She begins to desire her father sexually and wishes to be impregnated by him to substitute for the unobtainable penis.
Because she already lacks a penis, she does not experience castration anxiety as in the case of boys and so the Electra complex is never completely resolved. Owing to this incomplete resolution, the girl remains somewhat immature compared to men. From a scientific point of view, one of the major problems with the psychoanalytic theory is that most of its concepts cannot be evaluated scientifically to see whether they are accurate. Another criticism is that Freud derived his data almost exclusively from his work with patients who sought therapy from him.
Thus, his theory may provide a view not so much of the human personality as of disturbances in the human personality.