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to lia. Flying under the radar. Title: Flying under the radar | Responsible: R. Freingruber | Version / Date: V/ | Confidentiality Class: public. “Under the Radar,” Steven is left stranded at night in the countryside as his wife “Under the Radar” presents this in particularly humorous fashion too, as the. the urgent need to protect stateless children's rights. UNDER. THE. RADAR. AND . UNDER .. at/fileadmin/medien/pdf/osakeya.info

Free shipping for individuals worldwide Usually dispatched within 3 to 5 business days. About this book This is the biography of Ruby Payne-Scott to As the first female radio astronomer and one of the first people in the world to consider radio astronomy , she made classic contributions to solar radio physics. From a sociological perspective, her career also offers many examples of the perils of being a female academic in the first half of the 20th century. Written in an engaging style and complemented by many historical photographs this book gives a fascinating insight into the beginning of radio astronomy and the role of a pioneering woman in astronomy. Under the Radar is compelling reading, and if you have taken the time to read right through this review then it certainly belongs on your bookshelf! Graduate students, researchers, faculty, and professionals. Dickinson, Choice, Vol. The book concludes with a lengthy Appendix divided into fourteen sections covering a diverse range of subjects …. The book Under the Radar is a much deserved look at her life and times, and is an extremely through look at her background, her family, and the astronomy and physics involved in her research, definitely one worth searching out!

First, should the study focus on individual initiatives with ICT developed by citizens under the civil society banner or should it concentrate more specifically on TSO? Putting the focus on the civil society would enormously enlarge the scope of the study, implying many important methodological challenges which would be difficult for a single researcher to overcome. The decision was made to concentrate on the second dimension as it is clearly the most under-researched.

Nevertheless, as will be shown, the use of ICT by TSO for self- organisation purposes is a pre-requisite for eInclusion activities, and this has been reflected as far as possible in the overall study. Finally, the author would like to clarify the fact that, in a number of cases, she has deliberately decided to use wikipedia definitions.

The rationale behind this choice is twofold. First, wikipedia constitutes one of the most interesting "non profit social innovation" ICT- driven initiatives developed by the civil society. It is the result of collective intelligence processes understood as "the capacity of human communities to co-operate intellectually in creation, innovation and invention.

As our society becomes more and more knowledge- dependent, this collective ability becomes of fundamental importance. It is therefore vital to understand, among other things, how collective intelligence processes can be expanded by digital networks. It is one of the keys to success for modern societies42". Second, because of the nature of this research project, the lack of consensus regarding common definitions and the complexity of translating the numerous controversies in the field about some of the technological and TSO definitions, the author opted to use wikipedia definitions.

Nevertheless, these have been only introduced where the author considers that 42 Levy, P. Pour une anthropologie du cyberespace", Ed. Another important reason for choosing wikipedia definitions above one single expert definition is the fact they are the result of a process of collaborative definition based on negotiation, exchanges and consensus building among the participants editing the entry in wikipedia.

The Centre for Civil Society at the London School of Economics, refers to civil society as "the arena of uncoerced collective action around shared interests, purposes and values.

Civil society is characterised by "free" labour and a commodity market, a system of law enforcement and voluntary association". Therefore it can be said that civil society and the third sector carry out activities for reasons not motivated by coercion, the purposes of which are social innovation and political change. Civil society is involved in socio-political actions for transformation that are undertaken by individuals acting as citizens outside any collective structure defined as an organization.

It should be clear that this non-profit orientation does not exclude organisations that started as only voluntary but have evolved to being partly funded by public or private organisations. Edward Elgar Publishing Limited. The Third Sector: As explained by Kendall These might include types of community action that is not undertaken by organisations, but instead by entrepreneurs, individuals and activists; activity that takes place informally or virtually; actions that may have emerged from registered organisations that are nonetheless very small and operate independently from them.

Furthermore, how should we classify a community of developers of free software who meet and organize themselves through an IRC49 chat and a software repository?

It should also be underlined that the above examples do not represent isolated initiatives. They stem from civil society and ease and lower the barriers to the access, training, appropriation, design and development of ICT by citizens. Figure 2: Formal and informal types of Third Sector Organisations. As underlined by Forrest from Givingineurope.

Nonetheless, there have been some research projects which have settled important base-ground evidence by exploring these boundaries and analysing third sector activities. Non-profit expenditures average 4. If the non-profit sector were a separate national economy, it would be the eight largest in the world52".

The analysis of the means mobilized to achieve their sustainability finds that: Thirteen of the 22 countries are fee-dominant countries while 9 nations are government- dominant". Finally, it should be noted that its socio-economic importance varies greatly among countries and regions and it is worth noting that "the non-profit sector is larger in more developed countries.

Compared to an average of 4. Another study53 developed by the European Foundation Centre confirms the importance of the third sector as a source for employment. According to its results: Not only do they act directly as employers themselves, but by funding organisations and individuals in the non-profit sector they indirectly support employment and voluntary engagement in their areas of interest. In ten EU countries Belgium, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain , some 34, foundations employ a total of , staff, which makes an average of nine employees per foundation.

H, List, R. However, as regards TSO, it is difficult to see where they would fit in the twelve large groups identified divided into 24 sub categories.

It also proves that the identification of ICT-driven initiatives stemming from TSO requires more research and comprehension. We therefore propose below an alternative and summarised classification of TSO roles in order to put those that deal with ICT and eInclusion in the picture.

These four typologies are based on the analysis of the different TSO roles detected during the research process behind this report. It should be also said that these typologies can also be applied to the traditional activities performed by TSO in their daily work in order to progress and be effective. These categories are not mutually exclusive, they rather overlap producing endless shapes of TSO activities for social innovation.

Finally, one should remember that although these categories apply to the whole TSO sector, each one is also enabled, affected by, and dependent on access to ICT, according to the degree of digital inclusion, informational and communicational capacities of the TSO involved.

This last aspect will be further detailed in the next sections. These generate common spaces and sustain the transformation of weak ties58 into collective actions in order to push forward their political agenda of priorities.

For instance, the activities of TSO such as trade unions, federations, confederations, platforms and networks could fall into this category. These activities include the production of data, analysis, concepts and knowledge. These activities constitute the basis for the production of evidence to support and legitimate the activities developed by TSO. For instance, the activities of TSO such as observatories, watch-dogs, research centres could fall into this role category.

They try to counterbalance the detected dynamics of inequity, discrimination and marginalisation by providing solutions and services to tackle them. The activities of TSO providing digital services enabling the conditions to accede to, train on and skill with ICT along with other activities targeting the socio- economic inclusion of their participants fall into this category: These activities focus on the properties of ICT, developing awareness and advocacy regarding the governance and laws applied to the ICT access and uptake.

These include research, design and development of ICT and are generally closely linked to the creation, protection and spreading of "free culture".

Finally, they can also provide access to, and training and skilling in ICT as their primary activities. For instance, activities of TSO such as associations, cooperatives, peer-to-peer learning groups, forums, and computer clubs could fall into this category. Figure 3: Typologies of TSO roles for Social Innovation Evidence presented earlier has shown that the third sector is a complex subject for research and policymaking because of its heterogeneity and non-profit nature.

On the other hand, all existing studies agree that it is an important sector for many cultural, political, economic and social reasons, and that both the diversity of roles it plays and the contributions it makes to the smooth functioning and well being of our societies should be therefore captured and adequately evaluated.

The following sections give a more in-depth description of the common characteristics of TSO. Non-profit oriented social innovation Social Innovation is not easy to understand as it generally stems from informal environments. This might explain why it was conceptualized later than other types of innovation such as technological or organizational. Wikipedia, in itself an example of social innovation, defines it as "new strategies, concepts, ideas and organizations that meet social needs […] that extend and strengthen civil society60".

In this sense, any form of social economy such as cooperatives, local exchange systems, bank of time, p2p network currencies63, barter systems, gift economies, free software and free culture constitutes a social innovation. It combines some old elements and many new ones. Its key features include: For this reason, there has been a growing interest in understanding the relation between social innovation and the third sector. An important aspect of P2P currency and P2P Currency Systems is that a peer has the ability to create or destroy the currency with another peer, and doesn't need to confer with any central authority in order to create or destroy the currency.

The vast majority of all respondents attributed their inability to adopt a proposed innovation to lack of funding. Another crucial element, which explains the emergence of social innovation, relates to the large involvement of voluntary actors in TSO.

The study,67 previously quoted, which analyses foundations, confirms the importance of volunteer contributions showing that: More precisely it has been found that: As the reasons behind the activities carried out by many TSO are not for profit, motivations other than the ones falling in the "homo economicus70" paradigm are mobilized.

This idea is synthesized by Anheier when he emphasises that: Of course, there are social entrepreneurs, managers, employees, volunteers, users and clients in the third sector, but there is something perhaps even more basic at work: So reciprocity is an original non-contractual principle of economic action in which the social link is more important than the good exchanged. The reciprocity cycle is based on a gift calling for a counter-gift through which the groups or persons who received the first gift exercise their right to give back or not.

There is an incentive for recipients to give back but they are not compelled to do so by outside forces; the decision is theirs. As a result, gift is not synonymous with altruism and free products or services; it is a complex mix of selflessness and self-interest.

The reciprocity cycle is opposed to market exchange because it is inseparable from human relations that express the desire for recognition and power, and it is different from redistribution-based exchange because it is not imposed by a central authority". In this sense, actions and reflections from the third sector develop alternative practices of sharing and redistributing that support the emergence of new models of innovation, social economy and therefore sustainability, as detailed previously.

A person who enjoys exploring the details of programmable systems and how to stretch their capabilities, as opposed to most users, who prefer to learn only the minimum necessary.

A person who delights in having an intimate understanding of the internal workings of a system, computers and computer networks in particular; 2. One who programs enthusiastically even obsessively or who enjoys programming rather than just theorizing about programming; 3.

A person capable of appreciating hack value; 4.

A person who is good at programming quickly; 5. Definitions 1 through 5 are correlated, and people who fit them congregate.

An expert or enthusiast of any kind. One might be an astronomy hacker, for example; 7. One who enjoys the intellectual challenge of creatively overcoming or circumventing limitations; 8. Hence password hacker, network hacker. The correct term for this sense is cracker. It also implies that the person described is seen to subscribe to some version of the hacker ethic see hacker ethic.

It is better to be described as a hacker by others than to describe oneself that way. Hackers consider themselves something of an elite a meritocracy based on ability , though one to which new members are gladly welcome. There is thus a certain ego satisfaction to be had in identifying yourself as a hacker but if you claim to be one and are not, you'll quickly be labeled bogus. See also geek, wannabee.

Random House Inc 74 Evers, A. From the citizen perspective, getting involved generally as a volunteer in collective actions piloted by TSO translates into active engaging with social networks, and a means of developing "bridging" and "bonding" social capital. As Zinnbauer tells us: In this broad formulation, social capital encompasses a wide variety of connections and networks that people maintain with family, neighbours, colleagues etc.

It may also allow them to create, maintain and expand exchanges based on trust, solidarity and reciprocity that help them to identify available resources, knowledge regarding cultural, social and political cultural interests.

Finally, it should be understood that TSO interacting with each other, and with the public and commercial sectors shape an "economy of reciprocity" which depends on the motivations of the individuals acting in those organizations. To summarize, the social innovation characteristics of the third sector consist of: Collective action requires therefore exchanges of thoughts, knowledge and joint actions, and it depends upon "social networks77" to enable information exchange and communication between the people taking part.

Cambridge University Press 77 "A social network is a social structure made up of individuals or organizations called "nodes," which are tied connected by one or more specific types of interdependency".

It is also important to note that possibilities to participate are unequal between the people contributing to the same collective action as their possibilities to get engaged depend on their personal backgrounds, motivations, skills, networks, capital economic, social, cultural, informational, technological and the characteristics of the "life worlds" in which they are embedded.

Collective actions, which emerge from non-profit contexts and which aim to achieve social innovation, can be undermined by the collective action paradox, also known as the "free-rider paradox". This paradox may increase in proportion to the size of the group involved. It can be particularly evident in urban social movements and territorial struggles as the motivations to get engaged may diminish if the possible benefits materialize in a shared territory new public equipment, "not-in-my-backyard" dynamics.

It is therefore intrinsically part of it. At a meso and macro-political level, the structures of political opportunities operate upon collective actions by attributing them specific properties. Therefore SOP express the degree of criminalization, censorship, interest, acceptance, partnership or institutionalization that will be accorded by the state to the third sector. The SOP depend on the existing legislation and policies, the collective and historical memory of TSO, the nature of the practices and social demands engaged by them and the degree of acknowledgement by the institutions of the organizations and participants involved.

This last approach emphasizes the study of why and how collective actions emerge and succeed, or not, in the achievement of their objectives. For 78 Olson, M. Harvard University Press.

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The University of North Carolina Press. In the same sense, a collective action can be undermined by weak engagement of its participants and still be influenced by favourable SOP and the capacity to mobilize resources that translates into the achievement of its objectives. To wrap up, each intrinsic characteristic can oscillate from being a challenge to becoming an advantage and vice et versa. The third sector and ICT form a dynamic duo because any collective action undertaken by a TSO pursues different goals and uses several means to overcome its limitations.

TSO have a vital relation with ICT, as their capacity to adequately mobilize the necessary resources can depend on their tactical and creative use of them. In this sense, the dedication of TSO to informing people and documenting what they do, why they do it, and how they do it, seeks to enhance their responsiveness and survival.

Both depend, in the end, on their capacity to influence and engage with individual and public opinions, enlarge the social base that supports them, and enhance their social force by detecting and involving more active participants. These are: Moreover, civil society has never limited itself to the passive use of technological tools developed by others, but has always contributed to the design and development of its own ICT.

Some historical examples can be seen in the development of communal radio and television broadcasting, the hacking83 and making84 cultures, the Homebrew Computer Club,85 the invention of free software86 and free licenses,87 Creative Commons,88 the setting up of the first news Internet portal using open and anonymous publication,89 the creation of Wikipedia90 and Wikileaks91 and even the launch of the first non-military satellite into orbit.

This "engaged research" sustains their alternative development of ICT. They develop "social imaginaries96" by documenting, producing contents and communicating their purposes, activities and the methodologies they use. These imaginaries can survive beyond the existence of the TSO that has produced them and become part of the "collective memory97" of social movements and the third sector.

It should be underlined that the capacity to build these imaginaries is directly affected by the type of media environment available. The shift from analogical to digital and the irruption of the Internet and social computing applications have propelled major changes in the ways in which TSO engage in their tactical relation with media and ICT in order to boost their communication capacities, outcomes, impact and sustainability.

All these elements constitute powerful mechanisms for overcoming some of their structural weaknesses and boosting their potential by spreading, for instance, new "seeds" such as information, events, networks, collective actions.

Change emerges through the social imaginary without determinations, but in order to be socially recognized must be instituted as revolution. The collective memory is shared, passed on and also constructed by the group, or modern society". These effects also show that the development of ICT, and its correct appropriation, are not unequivocal processes, but are embedded in contexts framed by heterogeneous paths of appropriation depending on the characteristics of users and developers.

This underlines the fact that "the adoption of computer technology and the Internet cannot be looked at in terms of simple categories of use or non-use. It is more accurate to say that people adopt technology in a series of stops and starts, often dictated by events and changes in their lives, including those associated with family structures, social networks and their understanding of what the technology can do for them99".

As a consequence, other users have to adjust to these ICT designed for early adopters. Their success in doing so depends firstly on their capacity to access, train and skill; and then on their capacity to reap benefits from ICT.

This means they have to critically understand the potential of technology for their needs and to exploit this potential to achieve their goals. As a consequence, research and EU eInclusion policies have gradually come to agree that providing access is not enough, neither is relying simply on market-driven diffusion of ICT.

Accordingly, a first definition of eInclusion proposed in by the eEurope Advisory Group stated: As an illustration of this evolution, the research project INCLUSO which focuses on what social software can do for marginalized young people, stated there was evidence which shows that provision of digital technologies without appropriate human intervention is not an effective measure.

Rather, a set of solutions that focus on different groups, within a system that offers appropriate social intervention to help engage these groups is needed.

Along the same lines, Mehra and colleagues emphasised that "multiple factors are recognized as having an impact on internet use: Finally, the Digital Literacy European Commission Working paper pointed out that when fostering digital literacy with socio-economic inclusion objectives: Many initiatives reported that the first contact was often the most important and the hardest challenge was to convince people to try technology for the first time ".

These key findings all agree that initiatives should accompany their ICT activities with sufficient social intervention. Moreover, TSO can stimulate the uptake and adoption of ICT by adapting the action to the context, creating a balance between standard methodologies and the daily problems and needs experienced by targets groups. New Media Society. Indeed a historical distinction can be made between TSO types.

The two extremes would be: Figure 4: However, trying to make a clear distinction between participants, volunteers, workers and end-users is not always helpful.

On the Radar

It should be kept in mind that TSO boundaries are inherently dynamic: They become dreamers, then architects and finally prosumers producers- consumers of their own ICT. These examples show that when it comes to social innovation aims, non profit motivations and ICT tactical uses, everybody can be a student and a teacher, a user and a designer, a novice and an expert. The potential for eInclusion resides in the willingness of the participants to share, freely and for the public good, their knowledge with their peers.

The question of how rights can be protected and opportunities taken to expand them is therefore an important issue for rights advocates. They therefore argue that guaranteeing universal access to ICTs should be seen as a key rights objective. Information and communications rights are currently on the international ICT policy agenda, and civil society advocacy has played a significant part in putting them there. However, addressing the human rights challenges and opportunities that emerge from evolving ICT use tends to occur on an ad hoc basis.

Civil society activists, ICT policy makers and the human rights community have a significant amount of work to do if they are to ensure that these challenges are addressed in a more coordinated and effective way.

It is an example of an alternative monetary system. The initiatives have been, identified by a review of previous IPTS studies, through desktop research and 15 in-depth interviews by phone or face to face with a selection of researchers, practitioners, policymakers and media activists dealing with ICT and the third sector.

For example it does not cover all EU 27 countries, and even includes some examples from outside the EU. The main aim of the sample was to show the variety of practices in existence, and to make visible initiatives located under the radar rather than to build a representative sample.

Hence, first policies essentially focused on providing public and private access to ICT hardware, software and internet broadband. This gave rise to TSO initiatives which aimed to improve the awareness of potential users of the benefits that ICT can bring.

Public Internet Access Points providing free or subsidized access to computers, internet and other digital media such as public services online, often along with some training and user support were also set up in this phase. Illustrative initiatives: Spain, National Aim: The majority of these nodes are located in Catalonia but the network is growing in other parts of the Iberian Peninsula.

It is probably the largest wireless network community in the world. It is self-organized and operated by the users using unlicensed wireless links and open optical links. The nodes are contributed by individuals, companies and administrations that freely connect to a true open network of telecommunications and extend wherever the infrastructure and content might not otherwise be accessible.

Nodes join the network following the self- provision model since the whole structure is explicitly open to facilitate the understanding of how it is structured, so everyone can create new sections as required.

Rural areas and poorly branded areas Website: Bridge-IT See Annex 1.

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Mesh Potato Since: International Aim: Low cost and open source telephony development Synopsis: It is a marriage of a low-cost wireless access point capable of running a mesh networking protocol with an Analog Telephony Adapter. Wireless APs such as the Meraki or OpenMesh APs are rapidly gaining in popularity due to their low-cost, relative robustness, and ease of installation. Adding the ability to plug an ordinary telephone into a device like an OpenMesh AP opens up very interesting possibilities.

Access to ICT. Hamlab was a hacklab located in the Social Center Patio Maravillas Madrid which offered among other services, a free access to a phone box that enable its users to phone for free to landlines in over 40 countries using Asterisk, a SIP telephony provider.

Software freedom day SFD Since: Raising Awareness Synopsis: A worldwide initiative for the celebration of Free and Open Source Software FOSS which goal is to educate the worldwide public about the benefits of using high quality FOSS in education, in government, at home, and in business.

The non-profit organization Software Freedom International coordinates SFD at a global level, providing support, give- aways and a point of collaboration, but volunteer teams around the world organize the local SFD events to impact their own communities. Citizenship Website: Take back the tech! Take Back The Tech! Each daily action explores an issue of violence against women and its interconnection with communication rights, such as the right to privacy, freedom of expression and the right to information.

The actions approach different communication platforms - online and off - in creative and tactical ways. Citizenship, women and young girls. Therefore it encompasses "learning ICT" as receiving "basic digital literacy training" and "learning with ICT" as developing skills not only related to technological knowledge but also to other dimensions that are enhanced through the use of ICT for education, learning and training purposes.

Basic digital literacy training addresses basic PC and internet operations often with attendance certification and, at times, skills certification. Both dimensions can be delivered through formal, non-formal and informal learning settings such as classes, workshops, learning circles, seminars, online fora, mailing lists Cybersoek Since: The Netherlands, local.

Access and training to Internet. For more than eight years the staff have organised various projects, training sessions and workshops in the fields of internet and new media. Cybersoek is open to everyone, young and old alike. As it is located in an area where many migrants live, they are an important target group for the range of activities. It is now a spot where new and experienced web-users have all sorts of useful tools and training programmes readily at their disposal and where people of different backgrounds can meet each other, participate in courses, work together on specific projects and start cross-cultural friendships.

Immigrants, neighbours, communities, elderly, young people. Web in de Wijd WiN Since: The Netherlands, National Aim: The project is based on a bottom up approach to stimulate self-organisation and cooperation. Animators social professionals with specially designed media education reach out to all individuals and help them to identify their ambitions, drives , "Digital Literacy European Commission Working Paper and Recommendations from Digital Literacy High-Level Expert Group".

The WiN method has been implemented in different neighbourhoods across the Netherlands. Neighbours, elderly, young persons, immigrants. Spain, Barcelona, Regional Aim: Women Website: Eclectic Tech Carnival Since: Advanced ICT skills Synopsis: The Eclectic Tech Carnival is a gathering of women interested in open source technology. It is usually held once a year, in a place where there is an interested group of women willing to host it, and is usually about a week long.

The programme usually features cultural discussions and presentations, art exhibitions, performances and community events. Hackademy Since: Spain Madrid , local Aim: Citizenship, hacktivists, low income and unemployed persons, young persons. The complete list of courses held the first year: Chaos Communication Congress Since: Germany, Berlin, International Aim: An annual meeting of the international hacker scene, organized by the Chaos Computer Club.

The congress features a variety of lectures and workshops on technical and political issues.

Below the radar innovations and emerging property right approaches in Tibetan medicine

It usually attracts between 2, and 3, participants. A large range of speakers are part of the scene and organizational work is done by volunteers called Chaos Angels. An important part of the Congress is the hack center allowing room for around people to operate their devices and which is considered a huge laboratory for operating and testing modern network technology and software.

Citizenship, hacktivists, hackers. The analysis of ICT-based initiatives for inclusion of some of these groups show that the potential of ICT-based tools, applications and services cover several dimensions: Research also points at the crucial role of intermediaries, social inclusion and service delivery actors family carers, third sector workers, etc for realising the ICT potential for inclusion.

In addition, while there is no systematic study on digital competence levels of these actors, there is some consensus among actors working on eInclusion that levels of digital competences of intermediaries working in the public sector and third sector organisations are low and aren't in general enough to take full advantage of using ICT in their daily work. Germany, International Aim: Digital Literacy, raising voices and social skills.

A web-TV platform targeted at young people of migrant origin who make their own stories about youth, culture, music, lifestyle and cultural diversity. Young people with different cultural roots get together in workshops and young journalist groups, producing creative products and a web-TV magazine on urban culture and other subjects that concern them.

The video clips are then uploaded on the website, where participants can make a profile, build a network of friends and professional contacts, and create work groups or project websites. Every year, showcases are presented at live events in the participating cities. At these events, the international groups have the opportunity to meet each other in an intercultural context. JRC Technical Note. Everybody online Since: UK, National Aim: Access to Digital Literacy for all.

EverybodyOnline delivers projects throughout the UK which supports people in disadvantaged areas to use computers and the Internet. By providing the opportunity to access technology, people can enjoy the benefits of learning new skills, improved well being, increased employability, economic regeneration and extended social support. Once an area has been identified as being disadvantaged and having low levels of Internet connectivity, we employ a local project officer to work with local agencies and individuals to promote and deliver digital inclusion activities.

This includes developing Internet learning programmes, offering local volunteering opportunities and contributing to local digital and social inclusion networks. People living in disadvantaged areas Website: Cuidadoras en red Since: Spain, regional Aim: Digital Literacy and social networks of support for intermediaries. It consists in a social network site for non-professional care givers, that is, carers and informal care assistant. Most of them are immigrant women providing homecare to disabled and elderly.

This project was launched in cooperation with the Institute of Innovation for human wellbeing and the Nursing department of Malaga University. Currently the network has 13 communities and users engaging in activities such as blogging commenting, uploading photos, videos and files. The Carers with low levels of education and a great burden in everyday life are now motivated to learn to use ICT through a face to face training programme.

The use of social network has promoted social relation between carers and, also, improved the relationships with younger members of the family. ICT has been proved very effective for learning at home and it encouraged carers to study what they have not been able to study before.

Non professional caregivers, women, immigrants Website: Circuit Riders Since: A Circuit Rider is a technology expert that potentially has a community of organisations that they work with. The first project had 24 organisations that worked with migrant communities; with asylum seekers and refugees. Most importantly, the focus of this intervention was to enable these organisations to have strategic approach to technology.

Intermediaries, TSO Website: They also provide "media empowerment" with a focus on multimedia and audiovisual content production which help to develop technical and social skills. Okupem les ones Since: Television broadcast Synopsis: The television is developed from and for social movements.

It only broadcast free licensed audiovisual content production dealing with social and political issues. The assembly has also become a place to discuss and lobby the right of TSO to access and use for their communication needs the audiovisual spectrum frequencies ruling radios and televisions broadcasting.

Social movements, TSO, activists, videoactivists and audiovisual producers. Spain, Barcelona, International Aim: Television broadcast and development of free hardware Synopsis: Their ongoing projects consist of several experimental "temporary televisions channels" developed through the involvement of communities such as neighbours, inhabitants of small villages or kids residing in Brazilian favelas.

They learn to produce audiovisual contents and develop low-cost solutions for their analogical diffusion through ordinary television sets and via Internet throughout streaming protocols using Free Open Source FOSS technologies and free hardware devices.

TSO, communities of neighbourhood, overseas cooperation Website: Cumulus Press. Indymedia Since: Citizen media and Open publication Synopsis: The Independent Media Center a. Indymedia or IMC is a global participatory network of journalists that report on political and social issues. It is a collective of independent media organizations offering grassroots, non-corporate coverage. Indymedia is a democratic media outlet for the creation of radical, accurate, and passionate telling of truth by seeking to facilitate people being able to publish their media and opinions as directly as possible.

It has represented for hundreds of young persons an entrance in the use and development of ICT for social and political transformation, besides the network is a space of solidarity which enables and support the mobility of its participants through the world.

Citizen journalism Synopsis: Global Voices is a community of bloggers and translators around the world who work together to bring reports from blogs and citizen media everywhere, with emphasis on voices that are not ordinarily heard in international mainstream media.

Besides, Global Voices Advocacy is an anti-censorship network of bloggers and online activists which aims are to map and identify censorship happening, raise awareness of online freedom of speech issues, to share tools and tactics and provide legal support to activists and bloggers facing censorship on different parts of the globe.

Citizens, bloggers, TSO. It should be noted that even if there are no figures regarding the amount of TSO specifically devoted to this role, the overall impression in the research community is that their number is increasing, and that ICT-driven initiatives are becoming more interested in being ICT supported by other TSO, as those happen to understand better their motivations, aims and specific contingencies.

Tactical technology collective Since: Their mission is to advance the skills, tools and techniques of rights advocates, empowering them to utilise information and communications as a critical asset in helping marginalised communities understand and effect progressive social, environmental and political change.

They believe that the effective use of information and digital technologies can create more effective campaigns as advocates need the right tools to gather and analyse information and the means to transform that information into action.

TSO Website: NTEN Since: USA, National Aim: Research and knowledge support for TSO Synopsis: NTEN is primarily a community for those interested in the use of technology to support non-profit organizations and issues. Its major activity is an annual international conference for nonprofit organizations, IT staff, consultants and technology vendors. It also hosts various virtual and regional events throughout the year. NTEN aspires to a world where all nonprofit organizations skilfully and confidently use technology to meet community needs and fulfil their missions.

Its aim is to help voluntary and community organisations plan effectively for the future, with a particular emphasis on providing information about drivers affecting the voluntary and community sector.

Antenna Since: The Netherlands, International Aim: They have become the ICT partner for around organisations in the field of labour, women emancipation, environment, development, social change, education, human rights, peace and fair trade. Engaged research synthesizes several traditions developed throughout the world such as the Italian conricerca, the French action-research and the latino-american participative research. These research works are developed from the subjectivities of the researchers and aim at achieving social and political transformation meanwhile they are being accomplished.

On the other hand, thousands of communities of developers of free software and hardware contribute to the development of an increasingly huge reservoir of knowledge and expertise regarding ICT.

This is made possible by the sharing of information intrinsically related to the principles of copyleft and free software. Freedom 0: The freedom to run the program for any purpose; Freedom 1: The freedom to redistribute copies so you can help your neighbour; Freedom 3: To understand the concept, you should think of 'free' as in 'free speech', not as in 'free beer'".

As pointed by Hess, "design differences can mean a lot to industries, firms, social classes, genders, user groups, and ethnic groups […] By beginning with the understanding that design decisions and technological choices have a social and political dimension, the stage is set for developing a critique of technical efficiency as the primary driver of technological change.

Research and development usually overlap, nonetheless the following illustrative initiatives will be divided in two sub-categories in order to clarify their particularities. Donestech Since: Spain, Barcelona, National Aim: Research on women and ICT Synopsis: Donestech develops research regarding the access, uses and desires of women involved in technology. They have produced several studies on the role and contribution of women to ICT artists, developers, immigrants, ICT workers under the Spanish dictatorship.

They also produce visualisations, training materials, documentaries, gatherings and workshops. Women, girls, men interested in gender equality issues Website: MobileActive Since: Research on mobile devices for social action Synopsis: They are committed to increase the effectiveness of NGOs around the world which recognize that the more than 5 billion mobile phones provide unprecedented opportunities for organizing, communications, and service and information delivery.

They work together to create the resources NGOs need to effectively use mobile phones in their work: Citizens, researchers, TSO Website: Hackmeeting Since: Spain hackmeetings also take place in Italy, Mexico, Chile Aim: Hacking and socio-political implications of ICT Synopsis: The hackmeeting is a free and self-organized meeting that focuses on new technologies, their social implications, the free circulation of knowledge and techniques, privacy and security issues, collective creation and free culture.

Under the Radar

It is aimed at all types of people who have an open and curious mind and want to share their experiences and participate in a live mode to the development of the event. Citizens, activists, hackers Website: Awareness raising, advocacy and lobbying Synopsis: SVTC is engaged in research and advocacy to promote human health and environmental justice in response to the rapid growth of the high-tech industry.

Over the last two decades Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition SVTC has advocated for electronics companies to reduce and eventually eliminate the use of toxic chemicals in the design and manufacturing of products and the implementation of extended producer responsible in the management of products at the end of their lives. Besides, it has contributed in raising awareness for diverse stakeholders concerning recycling, eWaste and green IT issues.

Citizens, ICT policy and industry stakeholders. Research Synopsis: The Working Group will generate the necessary documents to ensure interoperable implementations of 6LoWPAN networks and will define the necessary security and management protocols and constructs for building 6LoWPAN networks, paying particular attention to protocols already available.

Researchers, ICT developers Website: Debian Since: Free Software operating system development Synopsis: Debian is a computer operating system composed of software packages released as free and open source software especially under the GNU General Public License and other free software licenses.

Debian is developed by over three thousand volunteers from around the world and supported by donations through several non- profit organizations around the world. ICT developers Website: Freedom Box Since: Free Software development Synopsis: FreedomBox is the name of a personal server running a free software operating system, with free applications designed to create and preserve personal privacy.

FreedomBox software is particularly tailored to run in "plug servers," which are compact computers that are no larger than power adapters for electronic appliances. Located in people's homes or offices such inexpensive servers can provide privacy in normal life, and safe communications for people seeking to preserve their freedom in oppressive regimes.

ICT developers, activists, citizens Website: Given the expanding commercialization of Sowa Rigpa, countries have developed various rules and regulations for its protection and promotion. The globalization of Tibetan medicine may not be understood in its singularity but plurality of practice, the practice being evolved in various spaces of production such as China, Mongolia, India, and Bhutan.

Tibetan medicine is also expanding globally. We need to wait and see in which directions Tibetan medicine unfolds in the West. In fact, questions arise as to whether in Western countries it maintains its traditional meaning as a theory and practice of every day wellness, or whether while consciously carrying the name of the ancient tradition, it is being transformed through markets Banerjee, into something quite different from its original version.

This will essentially invite the familiar challenges of its legitimation through parameters of biomedicine and the larger political economic issues that the other indigenous systems have already been through in the course of their transnationalization process Pordie, ; Reddy, This may lead to conceptual shrinkage and limit to therapeutic innovations within Tibetan medicine as in the case of Ayurveda Banerjee, This may overlook the inherent heterogeneity of practice as assumptions of homogeneity of biological bodies are the very rationale for any pharmaceutical expansion.

Hence, therapeutic pluralism has become very competitive and the market subsequently decides the choice and allocation of resources. While the neoliberal health interventions are based on the said definitions, Tibetan medicine need to be efficient in dealing with potential public health challenges, which in turn requires effective medicines, basic research and development and market potential.

The ways in which some of the Tibetan medical formulas are reaching the global market and the private initiatives are remarkable. This is because Tibetan medicine integration into the Western regulatory framework, which only works for formulas, composed of herbal and mineral substances, while the inclusion of any kind of animal components makes the product registration arduous.

This calls for compromise in its terms of substitution. In the meantime, there are many innovative experiences operating below the market and policy radar with in this medical system, that is pioneering and disruptive, which constantly adapt to the local conditions, and add substantially to the development of the sector and bring transformations to the life of those live with it.

Moreover, they address the social and environmental concerns that public policy is usually struggling to tackle. Some of these innovations are able to make a larger impact on the market, while some others are able to provide better health options to the public and in some cases, both. Some of them are reformulations and many others are even change in content.

A Physician from Dharamsala, the second capital of Himachal Pradesh state, in India mentioned that; These are new pills. So the text still gets updated. We test these pills with the patients. But there's no danger, because they are based on good knowledge. At first, we make only small amounts, and then we see if they work well or not …. Now it's different from before: If we make Agar 35 [a lung medicine], we make large quantities of it, it goes to the entire world—India, Europe, America, and so on.

One example is the innovation of medicines through simple alterations to fit the geographical locations. They also noted that Indians get dizzy more easily because of their diet in contrast to Tibetans. Now, since most branch clinics of MTK cater mostly to Indian patients, the institute took a conscious decision to consider this difference during the production process.

Many physicians from Dharamsala noted that they use the old Tibetan texts to do their own research for finding the new combinations and establishing the efficacy of the existing ones. While demand for Tibetan Medicine is on the rise, there are supply constraints. Both locals and tourists demand Tibetan medicines; questions have arisen as to whether better packaging and format pills and powder would facilitate their trust.

For example, a popular physician from Ladakh India mentions: I would put English and Ladakhi on the packet. Demand will increase when patients know what is inside the medicine. They need something that lasts long time, is easy to prescribe and easy for patients to take. If I show this packet, they will surely ask me to bring it. This could be the next step that will bring me success. At the same time, he mentioned that any kind of innovation is expensive and for the individual physicians it is difficult to manage within the limits of their earning.

Although such innovations in Tibetan medicine may fall well below the radar of scientific innovations and existing patent requirements, without doubt, they have larger repercussions in crafting a niche for Tibetan medicine and its practitioners. Yet, it is important to mention that Tibetan medicine has been able to maintain somewhat more conceptual and epistemological autonomy than other Asian medical systems e.

After having illustrated the notions of Tibetan medicine and below the radar innovations within the same, the article now considers conceptualizations of Tibetan medicine as an economic property section 4 and, after a scrutiny of Chinese and Indian laws governing the same section 5 as a form of intangible cultural heritage section 6.

Although critics suggest that the chemical complexity of natural products may make commercial production expensive or impossible Firn, , bioprospection is often used as a pertinent direction of research in many pharmaceutical companies.

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