PDF | This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly Comprehensive dictionary of electrical engineering / editor-in-chief Phillip A. Laplante. used in modern electric and electronic equip- ment. A strong selection factor was the fact that in a standard capacitor the electrical pa- rameter are closest to the. to some extent that the author has ventured to present this Dictionary of Electrical Words, Terms and Phrases to his brother electricians and the public generally.
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Appendix A contains the standard symbols used in electrical and electronic diagrams. These symbols are used in illustrations throughout this dictionary. Graf, Rudolf F. Modem dictionary of electronics / Rudolf F. Grafth ed., . The quantity of electricity passing any point in an electrical circuit in 1 second when. Rabi frequency the characteristic cou- pling strength between a near-resonant elec- tromagnetic field and two states of a quan- tum mechanical system.
Around the turn of the twentieth century, it was clear that the future of electricity in this country and elsewhere lay with AC rather than DC. The first commercial electric power plant to use AC began operating in the United States in The electricity was used for lighting and for running a local ice house. Two years later, on 26 August , water flowing over Niagara Falls was diverted through two high-speed turbines connected to two 5,horsepower AC generators. Initially, local manufacturing plants used most of the electricity.
But before long, electricity was being transmitted twenty miles to Buffalo, where it was used for lighting and for streetcars. This new source of energy had so many practical applications that it greatly changed the way people lived. Inventors and scientists developed electric devices that enabled people to communicate across great distances and to process information quickly.
The demand for electric energy grew steadily during the s. The technical aspects of the generation and transmission of electricity continued to evolve, as did the electric utility industry.
Clearly, large-scale power plants and the electricity they produced were major forces that shaped life in twentieth-century America. Electronics The world's reliance on electronics is so great that commentators claim people live in an "electronic age.
A branch of physics, electronics deals with how electrons move to create electricity and how that electric signal is carried in electric products.
An electric signal is simply an electric current or voltage modified in some way to represent information, such as sound, pictures, numbers, letters, or computer instructions. Signals can also be used to count objects, to measure time or temperature, or to detect chemicals or radioactive materials.
Electronics depend on certain highly specialized components, such as transistors and integrated circuits, which are part of almost every electronic product. These devices can manipulate signals extremely quickly; some can respond to signals billions of times per second.
They are also extremely tiny. Manufacturers create millions of these microscopic electronic components on a piece of material—called a chip or a microchip—that is no larger than a fingernail. Designing and producing microscopic electronic components is often referred to as microelectronics or nanotechnology. The development, manufacture, and sales of electronic products make up one of the largest and most important industries in the world.
The electronics industry is also one of the fastest growing of all industries. The United States and Japan are the world's largest producers of electronic components and products.
Areas of Impact Communication. Electronic communication systems connect people around the world. Using telephones and computers, people in different countries communicate almost instantly. Radios transmit sounds and televisions transmit sounds and pictures great distances. Cellular telephones enable a person to call another person while riding in a car, walking down the street, or hiking in the woods.
Within seconds, fax machines send and receive copies of documents over telephone lines. Information processing.
Scientists, artists, students, government and business workers, and hobbyists at home all rely on computers to handle huge amounts of information quickly and accurately.
Computers solve difficult mathematical problems, maintain vast amounts of data, create complex simulations, and perform a multitude of other tasks that help people in their everyday lives. Many computer users also have instant access to the Internet , which offers a wide variety of information and other features.
Medicine and research. Physicians use a variety of electronic instruments and machines to diagnose and treat disorders.
For example, X-ray machines use radiation to take images of bones and internal organs. The radiation is produced in a type of electronic vacuum tube.
Radiation therapy, or radiotherapy, uses X-rays and other forms of radiation to fight cancer. Many hearing-impaired people depend on hearing aids to electrically amplify sound waves.
Computers and other electronic instruments provide scientists and other researchers with powerful tools to better understand their area of study.
Computers, for example, help scientists design new drug molecules, track weather systems, and test theories about how galaxies and stars develop. Electron microscopes use electrons rather than visible light to magnify specimens 1 million times or more. Electronic components enable many common home appliances, such as refrigerators, washing machines, and toasters, to function smoothly and efficiently. People can electronically program coffeemakers, lawn sprinklers, and many other products to turn on and off automatically.
Microwave ovens heat food quickly by penetrating it with short radio waves produced by a vacuum tube. Many automobiles have electronic controls in their engines and fuel systems. Electronic devices also control air bags, which inflate to protect a driver and passengers in a collision. Lighting—Beyond Edison Edison's carbonized sewing thread and bamboo filaments were not used in incandescent bulbs for long.
Around , chemists at the General Electric Company developed a much improved filament material—tungsten.
This metal offered many advantages over its predecessors—a higher melting point , a tensile strength greater than steel, a much brighter light, and it could easily be shaped into coils. So good was tungsten that it is still used in incandescent lightbulbs. But today, incandescent lightbulbs are not the only option for consumers. Other lighting choices include fluorescent and halogen lamps.
Fluorescent lamps produce light by passing electricity through mercury vapor, causing the fluorescent coating to glow. This type of light is common outdoors and in industrial and commercial uses. Another type of incandescent lamp, called halogen, produces light using a halogen gas, such as iodine or bromine, that causes the evaporating tungsten to be returned to the filament.
Halogen bulbs are often used in desk and reading lamps. They can last up to four times longer than other incandescent bulbs. Teach Yourself Electricity and Electronics. New York: McGraw-Hill, Horowitz, Paul, and Winfield Hill.
Circuits can be in series, parallel, or in any combination of the two.
To restore service, the circuit breaker must be reset closed after correcting the cause of the overload or failure. Circuit breakers are used in conjunction with protective relays to protect circuits from faults. Conductive materials, such as metals, have a relatively low resistance.
Copper and aluminum wire are the most common conductors. Spontaneous corona discharges occur naturally in high-voltage systems unless care is taken to limit the electric field strength. An electric current can be compared to the flow of water in a pipe. Measured in amperes. See Frequency. Diodes allow current to flow when the anode is positive in relation to the cathode.
The sulfuric acid - water solution in a storage battery is an electrolyte. Measured in volts. It has a negative charge of electricity.
It is also used as one theory to explain direction of current flow in a circuit. One farad is equal to one coulomb per volt. It can cause overvoltages and overcurrents in an electrical power system and can pose a risk to transmission and distribution equipment and to operational personnel. Measured in Hertz. If a current completes one cycle per second, then the frequency is 1 Hz; 60 cycles per second equals 60 Hz. To restore service, the fuse must be replaced using a similar fuse with the same size and rating after correcting the cause of failure.
If the rate of change of current in a circuit is one ampere per second and the resulting electromotive force is one volt, then the inductance of the circuit is one henry. Replacing the earlier term of cycle per second cps. Impedance extends the concept of resistance to AC circuits, and possesses both magnitude and phase, unlike resistance, which has only magnitude.
Measured in henry H. The inductance is directly proportional to the number of turns in the coil. Insulative materials, such as glass, rubber, air, and many plastics have a relatively high resistance. Insulators protect equipment and life from electric shock.
Equal to Watt-hours. For example, if a W light bulb is used for 4 hours, 0. Electrical energy is sold in units of kWh.