Abul-Fateh Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar (–), well known as Akbar e Azam and Mughal e Azam. In this book Aslam Rahi described the complete history and biography of Sultan Jalaluddin Akbar is Urdu language. Jalaluddin Akbar history book is now available here on Pakistan virtual. The book Jalaluddin Akbar is a biography of Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar. Zaheeruddin Muhammad Babur Free Pdf Books, Urdu Novels, History Books. jodha rajasthan tour best gk book, jodha akbar story in urdu pdf kim kardashian, akbar wikipedia, jodha akbar an epic love story wattpad, is the.
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Jalal Udu Din Mohammad Akbar pdf book free download, Jalal Ud din akbar book download, jalal Uddin akbar life story in Urdu, jalal ud din. story pdf - Jodha Akbar. Full And Real Story. book â€œThe Empire of the great Akbar. And Jodha Urdu Story. Keywords: Free Download. Akbar Namah (Book of Akbar) is a historical discourse on Akbar's rule in India written by Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar (–), also known as Akbar the Great, was a Mughal emperor who ruled India from to World History.
The Afghan ruler, Baz Bahadur , was defeated at the Battle of Sarangpur and fled to Khandesh for refuge leaving behind his harem, treasure, and war elephants. His foster brother retained all the spoils and followed through with the Central Asian practice of slaughtering the surrendered garrison, their wives and children, and many Muslim theologians and Sayyids, who were the descendants of Muhammad.
Pir Muhammad Khan was then sent in pursuit of Baz Bahadur but was beaten back by the alliance of the rulers of Khandesh and Berar.
Baz Bahadur survived as a refugee at various courts until, eight years later in , he took service under Akbar. When Adham Khan confronted Akbar following another dispute in , he was struck down by the emperor and thrown from a terrace into the palace courtyard at Agra. Still alive, Adham Khan was dragged up and thrown to the courtyard once again by Akbar to ensure his death. Akbar now sought to eliminate the threat of over-mighty subjects.
Following a third revolt with the proclamation of Mirza Muhammad Hakim , Akbar's brother and the Mughal ruler of Kabul, as emperor, his patience was finally exhausted. Several Uzbek chieftains were subsequently slain and the rebel leaders trampled to death under elephants. They too were slain and driven out of the empire.
Following a brief confrontation, however, Muhammad Hakim accepted Akbar's supremacy and retreated back to Kabul. Kamala Devi, a younger sister of Durgavati, was sent to the Mughal harem. When summoned to give accounts, he fled Gondwana. He went first to the Uzbeks, then returned to Gondwana where he was pursued by Mughal forces. Finally, he submitted and Akbar restored him to his previous position. No imperial power in India based on the Indo-Gangetic plains could be secure if a rival centre of power existed on its flank in Rajputana.
Beginning in , the Mughals actively engaged the Rajputs in warfare and diplomacy. Unless Udai Singh was reduced to submission, the imperial authority of the Mughals would be lessened in Rajput eyes.
The fortress-capital of Mewar was of great strategic importance as it lay on the shortest route from Agra to Gujarat and was also considered a key to holding the interior parts of Rajputana. Udai Singh retired to the hills of Mewar, leaving two Rajput warriors, Jaimal and Patta, in charge of the defence of his capital. Akbar had the surviving defenders and 30, non-combatants massacred and their heads displayed upon towers erected throughout the region, in order to demonstrate his authority.
He never again ventured out his mountain refuge in Mewar and Akbar was content to let him be. Ranthambore was held by the Hada Rajputs and reputed to be the most powerful fortress in India.
Most of the Rajput kings had submitted to the Mughals. W of Agra in It was called Fatehpur Sikri "the city of victory". Illustration from a manuscript of the Akbarnama Akbar's next military objectives were the conquest of Gujarat and Bengal, which connected India with the trading centres of Asia, Africa, and Europe through the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal respectively. Akbar first moved against Gujarat, which lay in the crook of the Mughal provinces of Rajputana and Malwa.
Moreover, Akbar had received invitations from cliques in Gujarat to oust the reigning king, which served as justification for his military expedition. By , he had driven out the Mirzas who, after offering token resistance, fled for refuge in the Deccan. Surat , the commercial capital of the region and other coastal cities soon capitulated to the Mughals.
The outnumbered Mughal army then won a decisive victory on 2 September Akbar slew the rebel leaders and erected a tower out of their severed heads. The only centre of Afghan power was now in Bengal, where Sulaiman Khan Karrani, an Afghan chieftain whose family had served under Sher Shah Suri, was reigning in power. While Sulaiman Khan scrupulously avoided giving offence to Akbar, his son, Daud Khan , who had succeeded him in , decided otherwise.
The Mughal army was subsequently victorious at the Battle of Tukaroi in , which led to the annexation of Bengal and parts of Bihar that had been under the dominion of Daud Khan.
Only Orissa was left in the hands of the Karrani dynasty as a fief of the Mughal Empire. A year later, however, Daud Khan rebelled and attempted to regain Bengal. He was defeated by the Mughal general, Khan Jahan Quli , and had to flee into exile.
Daud Khan was later captured and executed by Mughal forces. His severed head was sent to Akbar, while his limbs were gibbeted at Tandah, the Mughal capital in Bengal. He did not leave Fatehpur Sikri on a military campaign until , when Punjab was again invaded by his brother, Mirza Muhammad Hakim. Akbar, however, spurred them on. The soldiers were provided with pay eight months in advance.
He stayed there for three weeks, in the absence of his brother, who had fled into the mountains. He pardoned his brother, who took up de facto charge of the Mughal administration in Kabul; Bakht-un-Nis continued to be the official governor.
A few years later, in , Muhammad Hakim died and Kabul passed into the hands of Akbar once again.
It was officially incorporated as a province of the Mughal Empire. Thus freed, Akbar began a series of campaigns to pacify the Yusufzais and other rebels. Raja Birbal , a renowned minister in Akbar's court, was also given military command.
The expedition turned out to be a disaster, and on its retreat from the mountains, Birbal and his entourage were ambushed and killed by the Afghans at the Malandarai Pass in February Over the next six years, the Mughals contained the Yusufzai in the mountain valleys, and forced the submission of many chiefs in Swat and Bajaur. Akbar's response demonstrated his ability to clamp firm military control over the Afghan tribes. There was only a transient occupation of the two provinces by the Mughals under his grandson, Shah Jahan , in the midth century.
The last of the rebellious Afghan tribes were subdued by The Afridi and Orakzai tribes, which had risen up under the Roshaniyyas, had been subjugated.
Ali Shah surrendered immediately to the Mughals, but another of his sons, Yaqub, crowned himself as king, and led a stubborn resistance to Mughal armies. Finally, in June, , Akbar himself travelled from Lahore to Srinagar to receive the surrender of Yaqub and his rebel forces. Since , the northern fortress of Bhakkar had remained under imperial control. Now, in , the Mughal governor of Multan tried and failed to secure the capitulation of Mirza Jani Beg, the independent ruler of Thatta in southern Sindh.
Jani Beg mustered a large army to meet the Mughals. After suffering further defeats, Jani Beg surrendered to the Mughals in , and in , paid homage to Akbar in Lahore.
In preparations to take Kandahar from the Safavids, Akbar ordered the Mughal forces to conquer the rest of the Afghan held parts of Baluchistan in Mariam-uz-Zamani owned ships that carried pilgrims to and from the Islamic holy city Mecca. When the Portuguese officially refused to return the ship and the passengers, the outcry at the Mughal court was quite unusually severe.
The outrage was compounded by the fact that the owner and the patron of the ship was the revered dowager empress. Jahangir, in retaliation ordered the seizure of the Portuguese town Daman.
This episode is considered to be an example of the struggle for wealth that would later ensue and lead to colonisation of the Indian sub-continent.
She was known to receive a jewel from every nobleman "according to his estate" each year on the occasion of New Year's festival. These courtesies and largesses demonstrate the amount of respect and love Jahangir held for his mother, Mariam-uz-Zamani. A number of royal functions took place in the household of Mariam-uz-Zamani like Jahangir's solar weighing,  Jahangir's marriage to daughter of Jagat Singh,  and Shehzada Parviz 's wedding to daughter of Sultan Murad Mirza.
Mariam-uz-Zamani died in The grave itself is underground with a flight of steps leading to it. Her tomb, built in —27, is on the Tantpur road now known as in Jyoti Nagar. Mariam's Tomb , commissioned by her son, is only a kilometre from Tomb of Akbar the Great. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Mariam-uz-Zamani An artistic depiction of Mariam-uz-Zamani.
Tomb of Mariam-uz-Zamani , Agra. Alexander Rogers and Henry Beveridge ed. Royal Asiatic Society, London. New Delhi [India]: Religion and Politics in a Global Society. Plymoth [England]: Lexington Books.
Medieval India: New Delhi: Har-Anand Publications. A history of Rajasthan. Inscribing South Asian Muslim Women: Brill Publishers. Smith, editor in The Oxford encyclopedia of women in world history. Oxford [England]: Oxford University Press. A Concise History of Modern India.
Cambridge University Press. Agrawal, Akbar and his Hindu officers: A History of Jaipur Reprinted ed. Orient Longman. Splendour of Fatehpur Sikri. Agam Kala Prakashan. The Modern Review, Volume Prabasi Press Private Limited.
Towns and Cities of Medieval India: A Brief Survey. The Times of India. Retrieved 15 February Akbar the Great Mogul.