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The main challenges identified in this special issue provide insights into promising future opportunities for research in four key areas.
First, there is a need for a shared definition of green entrepreneurship and consistency in measuring its attributes. Relatedly, the second area for future research concerns the relevant methodological issues that can provide a grounded understanding of green entrepreneurship. A third future challenge refers to the integration of green entrepreneurship into related research fields such as entrepreneurship, innovation studies, and finance in order to explore unanswered research questions at the intersections of these fields.
Finally, the creation of more comprehensive databases that capture a broad range of green entrepreneurs across different countries from both developed and developing background is essential for researchers to conduct rigorous empirical studies on green entrepreneurship.
In the following, we delve deeper in each of the points outlined above. To ensure more consistent advancement of knowledge in this field, a consensus is needed on what constitutes green entrepreneurship. As outlined in Shapira et al. While a degree of diversity is certainly expected and beneficial here, clarity on key elements of green entrepreneurship, while allowing for diversity within this definition through subcategories of green entrepreneurship, is essential to ensure that future research develops along a strong and coherent trajectory.
Similarly, a better understanding of what constitutes green goods, services, processes, and jobs is essential along with an examination of how traditional industry classifications fare according to green activities and green jobs. The environmental sustainability characteristics of born green companies can refer to a wide range of factors that are as distinct as environmental management performance Darnall and Edwards , green technologies Meyskens and Carsrud , individual commitment toward the environment by a team of founders Kuckertz and Wagner , creation of environmentally sustainable skills in the workforce Marin et al.
A better understanding of how all of these aspects relate to each other and contribute to the creation and development of born green firms can greatly advance this research area. For example, future research can focus on how green initiatives and practices by founders provide genetic environmental foundations that in turn inform the development of green technologies and firm outcomes. Such efforts are likely to benefit the second limitation in terms of data access and analysis.
While some large databases present opportunities for identification of green start-ups among the population of entrepreneurial ventures, most of commonly used data sources shed little light on green activities. Collaborating with the coordinators of databases to integrate simple and coherent indicators of green activity can open up important research opportunities.
This is the case with some regional variants of Community Innovation Survey in Europe that have started incorporating questions related to greening activities of firms.
Individually coordinated databases by researchers in different geographies present interesting, yet small, samples of green entrepreneurs and these efforts feed our understanding and knowledge of this type of firms. Yet, a more coordinated and consistent approach is often not present in these efforts, limiting comparability across different studies.
Even when extensive data sources are available, such as in the case of eco-innovations which make use of patent data, these sources are far from being comprehensive and fully reliable. A more coordinated effort and collection of larger-scale data will benefit the cause of advancing green entrepreneurship research.
A third area where improvement is urgently needed is better embedding and enlarging the reach of green entrepreneurship by following recent trends in existing areas of research.
On the theoretical side, the literature has shown significant progress made in both fields of entrepreneurship Meyskens and Carsrud, and eco-innovation Hoogendoorn et al. Yet, only a small number of studies bridge these insights to equip green entrepreneurship literature with a sound theoretical framework.
One of the objectives of this special issue is to lay out some ground work for a strong theoretical framework by bringing together approaches from different disciplines in management and economics. For example, evidence from different papers in this special issue points to the differential ability of young companies to transform green technologies into performance. One reason put forward by these works relates to the complexity of green technology given its early stage. Looking at the innovation barriers as well as failure in innovation activities faced by born green companies can inform both recent attempts in the innovation literature Marin et al.
Evidently, these studies contained here may have only scratched the surface of the problem and future work should try to dig deeper into this. Such an approach will not only make the field more robust, it will also open up new opportunities for research in fields from these disciplines e. Finally, a current weakness in the field of green entrepreneurship is that it frequently relies on evidence from a single country or industry setting, and almost entirely based in advanced economies.
Although green entrepreneurship is often perceived to provide a sustained source of new advantages to advanced economies, its role in more impoverished communities should be equally significant if not more as environmental issues coupled with social and economic pressures are often at the forefront of developmental objectives Hall et al.
Cross-country evidence especially from developing economies is, therefore, largely needed in the form of context-specific studies that take into account the social-economic conditions in which green entrepreneurship is embedded.
Footnotes 1. Notes Acknowledgements We are grateful to the editor David Audretsch for supporting this nascent research agenda. Following formal submissions to the journal and a double-blind peer review process, a selection of papers were accepted for publication in this special issue. We are thankful to the reviewers who provided valuable comments while assessing the submissions, and the editorial team of Adam Lederer at the Small Business Economics Journal for their excellent support.
References Abernathy, W. Innovation: mapping the winds of creative destruction. Research Policy, 14 1 , 3— Innovation and small firms. MIT Press. Accessed 20 June Acs, Z.
The knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship. Small Business Economics, 32 1 , 15— Google Scholar Ambec, S. Does it pay to be green? A systematic overview. Academy of Management Perspectives, 22 4 , 45— Google Scholar Armington, C.
The determinants of regional variation in new firm formation. Regional Studies, 36 1 , 33— Google Scholar Audretsch, D. Innovation and industry evolution. Cambridge: MIT Press. Entrepreneurship capital and economic growth.
Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 23 1 , 63— Does the knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship hold for regions? Research Policy, 34 8 , — Small Business Economics, 43 4 , Google Scholar Ball, C. Removing environmental market failure through support mechanisms: insights from green start-ups in the British, French and German energy sectors.
Small Business Economics, forthcoming in this issue.
Google Scholar Barbieri, N. A survey of the literature on environmental innovation based on main path analysis.
Journal of Economic Surveys, 30 3 , — Google Scholar Bergset, L. Workbook Home First Insights into Business. Manton K.
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