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Ensiklopedi Islam Indonesia / Disusun oleh tim penulis IAIN Syarif Hidayatullah. Code: R ENS. Author: Download as PDF · Download Ensiklopedi. Ensiklopedia Islam Indonesia book. Read 2 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. Ensiklopedia Islam dan Iran book. Read reviews from world's largest community for readers.

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Ensiklopedia Islam Pdf

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Zuhayli was born in the Syrian town of Dair Atiah, north of Damascus, to a father who was a farmer by occupation. Zuhayli studied sharia in the University of Damascus for six years, graduating in at the top of his class. Zuhayli furthered his Islamic education at the prestigious Al-Azhar University where he again graduated at the top of his class in After graduating in , Dr. Zuhayli also received an ijaza in teaching Arabic from Al-Azhar. While studying in al-Azhar, Dr. Zuhayli studied law in Ain Shams University in Cairo, Egypt where he received a bachelors degree magna cum laude in

Includes long, signed articles, with bibliographies. Special emphasis is given in this EI2 edition to economic and social topics, but it remains the standard encyclopedic reference on the Islamic religion in English.

EI is no anonymous digest of received wisdom. Most of the articles are signed, and while some are hardly more than dictionary entries, others are true research pieces — in many cases the best available treatment of their subject. It was published by Brill in four volumes plus supplement from to in English , German , and French editions.

An abridged version was published in as the Shorter Encyclopaedia of Islam SEI , covering mainly law and religion.

The second edition of Encyclopaedia of Islam EI2 was begun in and completed in several indexes to be published until ; it is published by the Dutch academic publisher Brill and is available in English and French. Besides a great expansion in content, the second edition of EI differs from the first mainly in incorporating the work of scholars of Muslim and Middle Eastern background among its many hundreds of contributors: EI1 and SEI were produced almost entirely by European scholars, and they represent a specifically European interpretation of Islamic civilization.

Certainly, the study of ancient sciences is not viewed, as by "orthodox theologians", as a vehicle of heresy and even atheism. Rather, sciences explain the underlying reality of the universe and so allow rational understanding of the contents of Revelation and of religious Law.

The blending of scientific and religious issues is evident from the beginning. Sciences should be the main topic in the first and the second sections and, partially, in the third, and theology in the rest of the corpus. Thus religion should not be underestimated in order to attain the best comprehension of its various contents and real aims. Various cultural elements come together in the Epistles: Babylonian, Indian and Iranian astrology, Indian and Persian narrative, biblical quotations and cabbalistic influences, references to the New Testament and Christian gnosis A good survey of these contents can be found in Netton , 53ff.

In spite of the commixtion of Aristotelian and Neoplatonic ideas — e. The encyclopedia can thus be considered a compendium of foreign sciences, deserving attention even by those who are only interested to ascertain the extent of what the Arabs knew of ancient doctrines at that time. When such comparisons are not possible, the ancient excerpta usually correspond to the extant original texts. In some cases, they have even preserved the only Arabic fragments of Greek authors known to us, as exemplified by the well-known case of the story of Giges from Plato's Republic in Epistle The story of Giges is analyzed in Baffioni , —, — Platonic references in the encyclopedia are also scarce.

The majority of them are found in the fourth section and concern the trial and death of Socrates. There is also a hint at the doctrine of reminiscence, that is seldom mentioned in Muslim sources; cf. The Platonic references are religiously rather than philosophically oriented. That can perhaps be explained by the influence of the Hellenistic curricula scientiarum courses of study designed for philosophers.

This definition immediately clarifies Hellenism as the authors' first theoretical and historical reference. Their source is here Plato or, rather, his Hellenistic reading Kraus , 99, note 4. Arithmetic, geometry and music are later approached together in Epistle 6 On proportions. References for the various sciences are, generally identifiable: Euclid, Nicomachus and sometimes even Archimedes for mathematical tenets Epistles 1, 2 and 6 ; Ptolemy supports astronomy and geography Epistles 3 and 4 ; the Pythagoreans and again Nicomachus are the sources for musical theory Epistles 5 and 6.

The Greeks already saw arithmetic and geometry as the necessary, though not unique, means of attaining philosophical knowledge.

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There is no place for poetry or for rhetorical devices in the encyclopedia. Dialectics increases damaging opposition among the learned.

Heck , 11 for a new perspective on this issue. The logical treatises include paraphrases of Porphiry's Isagoges, which the later Greeks considered to be the first book of Organon Rhetoric and Poetics were taken to be its last books.

This might be due to the religious aims of the encyclopedia. Logic is no longer a simple instrument of science as it was for Aristotle, but a true science, perhaps the most important one. So, the table can be considered as evidence of the fact that the whole encyclopedia has been produced during a very long period of time. On the one hand, it might have been retained as a first draft of the future enterprise; on the other, it shows the further elaborations of the corpus over the centuries.

Epistles 7 and 8 explicitly recall the Aristotelian division of the theoretical and practical sciences. I, , 20—, 4. Lewis ; Marquet ; Daftary , ; and more recently, Yasien Epistle 9 breaks the series of the scientific treatises.

Various moral behaviours are considered, with the support of a long series of anecdotes about prophets and wise men. Epistles 6, 16 and The composed and eclectic character of the whole is even more evident in the three other sections. In the second section, the Epistles 15—22 follow the Hellenistic arrangement of Aristotle's works on physics.

Epistle 15 echoes the themes addressed in the Physics. Epistle 17 deals with De generatione and corruptione. The Ikhwanian treatise deals with mineralogy, geology and gemmology and in the correspondence established between the celestial and sub-lunar worlds, between the stars and minerals, it expresses one of the main tenets of alchemy.

Further Aristotelian echoes are found in Epistle 24 On sense and sensation, to which Epistle 35 On intellect and intelligible corresponds in the third section. It is discussed in terms of the relationship between soul and body in Epistles 27 e 28, life and death in Epistle 29, and pleasures in Epistle The Aristotelian theory of the immovable mover, which is introduced in Epistle 37 On love, to explain the movement imparted to stars by the heavenly Universal Soul accomplishes its religious meaning.

It serves to confirm the love human beings feel for permanence and their hatred for death: God is the most beloved as the everlasting cause of all beings.

On the other hand, natural treatises reflect the availability of the rich range of mineralogical, botanical and agricultural works, but none of the works by Aristotle on minerals or plants were known to the Arabs. In fact, it places the whole matter within the well-known metaphysical dispute on the superiority of man on animals besides some attempts of viewing it even in an "ecological perspective"; see, more recently, Darraz ; Raymond , The authors' view of embryology Epistle 25 is also a collection from different sources.

It is considered to be a new idea introduced by Islamic scientists, from whom it passed into the Latin world. Greek sources for Epistle 37 on love also vary. The real deviation from Aristotelianism is Epistle 20 On nature. In that it shows how nature as taught by Aristotle was received and theorized by the authors, this treatise could serve as the perfect introduction to the section on natural sciences. However, its main part regards angelology. These treatises demonstrate beyond doubt that these authors considered themselves true Muslim Pythagoreans.

The Pythagorean idea of the one as the principle of numbers, and not as a number itself explains that God is the origin of beings, and not a being like others. If God is like the one, the Active Intellect is compared to number 2, the Universal Soul to number 3 and Nature or Matter to number 4 cf. Epistle 40, III, , 5.

The whole reality is considered under a numerological perspective. Every aspect of nature — and even of religion — follows a numeric pattern.

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Among the other philosophical schools and doctrines quoted in the encyclopedia an important role is played by hermetism the religion of the philosophical elite in Ancient Egypt, founded by Hermes Trismegistus , as in Epistle 3 On astronomy and, more broadly, in Epistle 52 Marquet , Ancient theories on the movements of the stars will finally evolve in Epistle 36 On cycles and revolutions into that which, following Cumont, G.

The religious component Just like philosophy, as a way towards salvation, is an imitation of God and implies that the disciple is provided not only of an acute mind, but also of a pure heart through which God will be recognized as the sole and the supreme teacher in knowledge and deeds, as the Holy Book demonstrates, cf.

This brings us back to the second aspect of the encyclopedia, its religious commitment. They also deal with doctrinal questions linked to religion. It also develops the apologetic side of Ikhwanian thought. Epistle 45 expounds the organization of the Brotherhood based on mutual help. Epistle 46 considers the faith, not only of Islam, but also of the former monotheistic religions and of the ancient wise men. Epistle 47 considers prophecy and the imamate. Epistle 48 discusses propaganda.

Epistle 50 discusses the various kinds of 'administration' physical, spiritual, personal, familiar, etc. Menurut Cak Nur, mengolah kembali khazanah terbaik umat manusia sekarang ini, dan menjadikannya sebagai milik umat Islam adalah hakikat makna ijtihad atau pembaruan. Bagi Cak Nur, ijtihad atau pembaruan haruslah merupakan proses terus-menerus sebagai pemikiran yang orisinal, berlandaskan penilaian atas gejala-gejala sosial dan sejarah, yang sewaktu-waktu harus ditinjau kembali benar salahnya.

Ijtihad merupakan suatu proses di mana kesalahan proses akan mengakibatkan buah yang pahit, yaitu kegagalan. Sungguhpun demikian, itu pun, menurut Cak Nur, masih lebih ringan daripada beban stagnasi sosial sejarah akibat tidak adanya pembaruan. Dan bagi Cak Nur, tidak mungkin ada ijtihad dan pembaruan yang akan mengubah masyarakat ke arah peradaban, jika tidak ada organisasi-organisasi penelitian dengan dasar yang kuat, yang mempunyai metode yang unggul untuk menganalisis situasi apa pun, dan mempunyai pengetahuan yang tepat tentang perkembangan-perkembangan kemajuan kemanusiaan dan kesempatan-kesempatan yang diberikan oleh penemuan-penemuan baru di setiap bidang, baik sosial maupun alam.

Sebenarnya Cak Nur memimpikan Paramadina untuk tujuan ijtihad seperti ini. Dan ide-ide yang dikemukakannya merefleksikan fondasi yang dirintisnya untuk menjadikan Paramadina sebagai Pusat Islam Islamic Center yang terkemuka.

Pekerjaan pembaruan, menurut Cak Nur, adalah pekerjaan dari kalangan masyarakat yang mempunyai kemampuan yang sebesar-besarnya untuk mengerti dan berpikir. Dengan kata lain, pekerjaan kaum terpelajar, dengan tanggung jawabnya yang berat, yaitu kemajuan umat Islam, dan kemajuan bangsa Indonesia secara keseluruhan. Bagaimana cara membaca buku ini?

Pertama buku ini didesain dengan satu entri dapat dibaca satu menit. Maksudnya, diharapkan dengan membaca satu entri apa pun ada pencerahan pikiran yang bisa Anda dapatkan dari pikiran Cak Nur.

Sebagian besar entri dapat membantu kita mencapai ketiga kemungkinan hal tersebut. Tanggung jawab kegagalan itu ada pada penyunting. Dan diharapkan masukan, saran, dan kritik untuk perbaikan pada cetakan mendatang. Dalam banyak halaman, tersedia kutipan dari pikiran Cak Nur yang diharapkan bisa menjadi inspirasi. Juga gambar-gambar yang membantu kita supaya dapat membaca relaks, berhadapan dengan buku setebal ini.

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Buku ini tidak dimaksudkan untuk dibaca semua. Tetapi kalau Anda dapat membaca semua, atau paling tidak sebagian besar dari entri yang ada, maka akan banyak pemahaman dan inspirasi yang dapat diperoleh dari Cak Nur.

Dan ini merupakan warisan paling berharga dari kerja intelektual Cak Nur selama di Yayasan Paramadina. Akhirnya, tanpa bantuan banyak pihak tentu buku Ensiklopedi Nurcholish Madjid ini tidak akan pernah terbit menjadi kenyataan. Maka pertama kali, saya sebagai penyunting, mengucapkan rasa syukur kepada Allah Swt. Nurcholish Madjid, yang telah memperkenankan saya mendampingi beliau dalam masa 12 tahun saya menjadi Direktur Pusat Studi Islam Paramadina. Dari beliau—setelah saya mempelajari bertahun-tahun isu yang ada dalam ensiklopedi ini—saya mendapatkan keteguhan iman yang mapan, penuh kelapangan, pluralis, dan yang paling penting, toleran, di tengah suasana filosofis skeptisisme posmodernis yang banyak saya pelajari, yang meragukan arti agama dewasa ini.

Terus terang, Cak Nur telah menyelamatkan iman saya dari ketidakpercayaan akibat gempuran renungan-renungan filosofis yang sangat kritis terhadap apa pun yang dianggap sebagai pemikiran mapan.

Cak Nur memberikan sebuah istilah filsafat fides quarens intellectum, sebuah keimanan yang diterangi akal—juga sebaliknya akal yang dicerahkan oleh iman. Dalam masa yang panjang bersama Cak Nur, saya bersentuhan dengan banyak kuliah, ceramah, hand-out, dan makalah Cak Nur yang sebagian besar sekarang sudah terdokumentasikan dan terolah dalam ensiklopedi ini.

Terima kasih Cak Nur atas kepercayaan Anda pada saya untuk memimpin proses penyuntingan ensiklopedi ini. Dengan ensiklopedi ini, semoga akan lebih tersebarluaskan pikiran-pikiran yang telah Anda geluti selama lebih dari tiga dekade, ke seluruh pelosok Indonesia. Saya ingin mengucapkan terimakasih kepada Mbak Omi Komaria Madjid dan keluarga yang telah mengizinkan penerbitan buku ini, dan juga telah memberikan masukan dan koreksian.

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Kepada teman-teman Yayasan Wakaf Paramadina dulu maupun sekarang, saya ingin mengucapkan terimakasih atas kesempatan yang telah diberikan kepada saya, sehingga saya bisa mengolah naskah Cak Nur ini sehingga menjadi buku dokumen yang lengkap.

Saya juga ingin mengucapkan terimakasih atas persahabatan yang sangat berkesan selama saya bekerja 12 tahun di Paramadina. Didik J.

Rachbini, Bapak Silmy Karim, dan Bapak Hendro Martowardojo, saya menghaturkan terimakasih atas usaha dan bantuan finansial untuk penerbitan buku ini. Selanjutnya, tentu saja saya harus mengucapkan terima kasih kepada lima senior saya di Center for Spirituality and Leadership CSL.

Mereka semua telah mendorong saya untuk dapat menyelesaikan proses pendokumentasian pikiran-pikiran Cak Nur, bagaimanapun beratnya pekerjaan ini, sehingga bisa selesai seperti yang dapat Anda nikmati sekarang. Mereka bukan hanya memberi support, tapi juga memberi bantuan keuangan yang besar sehingga penyuntingan buku ini dapat terselesaikan.

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