The Yoga Sutras book. Read reviews from the world's largest community for readers. This valuable book provides a complete manual for the study and. The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali [Sri Swami Satchidananda] on osakeya.info *FREE * shipping on qualifying offers. This valuable book provides a complete manual. The Yoga Sūtras of Patañjali are a collection of Indian sutras (aphorisms) on the theory . Patañjali divided his Yoga Sutras into four chapters or books ( Sanskrit pada), containing in all aphorisms, divided as follows: Samadhi Pada (
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No one really knows who Patanjali was but his book on yoga sutras is considered to be one of the most treasured yoga books to this date. The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali by Swami Satchidananda, , available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide. The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali: The Book of the Spiritual Man by Patañjali. No cover available. Download; Bibrec.
Research questions Broad Research Question: To investigate the similarities between yoga and hypnosis. Specific Research Question: To investigate the similarities between Patanjali yoga sutras and hypnosis in terms of the altered states of consciousness, and their therapeutic value.
The book is published by the Bihar School of Yoga, which is the world's first yoga university. The book, Four Chapters on Freedom is a text used for the courses in the university, and is a widely accepted text on Patanjali yoga sutras. This is the reason this text is selected for analysis. Data collection The following serve as data for the study: The text on Patanjali yoga sutra.
Four Chapters on Freedom: A Commentary on the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali by Swami Satyananda Saraswati Discussion of findings with expert: Findings obtained from the thematic analysis are communicated to an expert and discussed with her.
This discussion provides insights, which are incorporated into the study. The study is conducted in two phases. In the second phase, the concepts obtained through the analysis are compared to the concepts of hypnosis to uncover the similarities between the two. Data analysis Thematic analysis is the method of analysis for the first phase of the study.
Thematic analysis is defined as a general method of analysis of text. Following the same process, in the first phase Four Chapters on Freedom: A Commentary on the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, is read to become familiar with the text. This is followed by an initial coding which leads to the formation of themes. The themes are then reviewed and then defined and named. Through this process meaning units are created, which describe and explain each of the phenomena under study.
These are then used to form themes, which illustrate each of the phenomena. In the second phase of the study, the themes generated through the thematic analysis of the text are compared with the concepts in hypnosis to investigate whether or not there are similarities between the phenomena in Patanjali yoga sutras and phenomena in hypnosis.
Issues of trustworthiness and process of validation The themes obtained from the analysis were finalized after discussion with a student pursuing her Masters in Psychological Research Methodology who went through relevant passages from the text independently The findings were discussed with the supervisor and an expert in the field of yoga which provided further insight.
This served as a method of triangulation Peer debriefing: A competent peer was given regular progress reports of the research A paper trail of the documents used for analysis, and the different stages of analysis is maintained and is available on request.
This book is a commentary on the yoga sutras written by the sage Patanjali. Sutra means thread and it is implied, by the use of this word, that the written verses carry and underlying, continuous and unbroken thought. The various ideas in the sutras connect with each other and one thought leads to the next resulting in a complete philosophy. The yoga sutras of Patanjali consist of sutras, which are organized into four chapters.
These are: Samadhi Pada: This consists of 51 verses and is the chapter on Samadhi. Sadhana Pada: This consists of 55 verses and is the chapter on practice.
Vibhooti Pada: This chapter discusses various psychic powers and consists of 56 verses. Kaivalya Pada: It the chapter on isolation or aloneness. It consists of 34 verses. From the thematic analysis, it was found that there are similarities between the trance state in hypnosis and yoga.
These similarities are found in terms of: The induction and deepening of the trance states in hypnosis and that of Samadhi The phenomena present in hypnosis and the siddhis obtained through Samadhi The therapeutic techniques and the therapeutic process in Patanjali's yoga sutra and hypnosis. Along with the similarities between the two, there were many ideas in Patanjali yoga sutras which were found to be similar to psychological concepts.
Psychological concepts in Patanjali yoga sutras There are many ideas in Patanjali yoga sutras that are parallel to and resemble concepts that are present in psychology. The mind or chitta as described in Patanjali yoga sutras is said to be comprised of the conscious, subconscious and the unconscious.
Patanjali yoga sutras also believe that self-realization can take place only when the chitta vrittis cease their activity or when the chitta is no longer affected by the three gunas. Only when there is a cessation of identification with the outside objective world, the mind is able to see things as they are. This is similar to the idea in psychology of the presence of schemas through which we make sense of the world.
Schemas can be conceptualized as organized patterns of thought and behaviors or structures that organize our knowledge and assumptions about something that is used for interpreting and processing information. They influence our attention to a situation and also influence what we look for in situations. It is the schemas that guide our thinking and information processing. All the information that is received from the external world is interpreted through the schemas we hold.
This is essentially the same idea that is present in Patanjali yoga sutras as well. The mind, Patanjali explains, is colored and conditioned by its likes, dislikes, and false beliefs. It further explains that the external reality is superimposed with the modifications of the mind.
This can result in misidentification leading to feelings of joy, sadness, fear, like, dislike, etc. In order to overcome suffering this association has to be broken. Patanjali yoga sutras also hold that memory is made up of past impressions. Smriti, it describes as an independent awareness on which impressions are embedded. It also believes that even if the past clears up, the smriti remains.
Thus we see that smriti is analogous to schemas as schemas too, are mental structures that help us organize information regarding the external world. They are cognitive representations of the self which guide the kind of attention paid to external events and the meaning that they convey. This holds that an object or event in itself is not painful or pleasurable, but it is the mind that makes it so.
It is the attachment that one has toward objects that causes attraction and repulsion toward them. Abandonment of this attachment or the process of detachment gives rise to freedom from this attraction or repulsion, thereby helping in controlling the pleasure and pain one experiences.
This is the same as the concept of cognitive theory and cognitive hypnotherapy.
Cognitive theory posits that people tend to perceive and interpret situations in characteristic ways that color their feelings and shape their behaviors. People often have spontaneous, automatic thoughts about their past, current or future situations.
People are not conscious of the automatic thoughts but of the emotions arising from them. These arise from the beliefs and ideas that are embedded in the mental structures of the mind. These are called schemas. These schemas have the ability to bias processing of information and external events are colored by the schemas which guide the individual. This makes the individual infer an external event as positive or negative, pleasurable, or painful.
This holds that even though the object is one, it is perceived differently at different times and by different people depending on the difference in mental conditions. It is this difference in perception that makes object capable of inducing pleasure and pain and suffering. Once the perception is cleansed of one's mental modifications external events fail to evoke pain and suffering in the in the individual.
This is similar to the principle of cognitive behavior therapy. Conscious memory involves the recollection of things already experienced.
This is different from subconscious memory that refers to the memory that one does not consciously remember. This may present itself in dreams and the memories that are revealed there are memories of actual events that are not distorted. The sutras thus, are of the opinion that conscious memories are distorted due to our impressions are remembered as such and not as what the reality was. This is in line with the idea of memory being a reconstructive process.
They explain that pain is not in the present but is rooted in the past. Klesha is the agony that is present in our very being. According to them, everyone feels pain but everyone is not aware of it. Pain is thought to be at the bottom of everything and Patanjali also talks of three different types of pain.
The first pain is change, life changes to death The second is acute anxiety, achievement, success and love give rise to anxiety at some time or the other; The third pain is habit, we become used to things and are then afraid of losing them. Similarities in the induction and deepening of trance in hypnosis and Patanjali yoga sutras The process of attaining the trance state in hypnosis is referred to as the induction process.
One of them is the eye fixation method. In the eye, fixation method is a type of hypnotic induction method that people associate most with hypnosis. In this method, the client is instructed to maintain a fixed gaze on an object. This could be any object, a spot on the wall, the hand of the hypnotist, a finger held in front of the client's eyes, or even, the flame of a lamp.
Similarities in the phenomena of trance in hypnosis and Patanjali yoga sutras In the trance of hypnosis, there is a shift in the perception of the external world and the internal environment. Subjective time appears to move slowly and an hour may appear to have been only a few minutes. Memories of remote events of the past are recalled with uncanny accuracy.
During hypnosis, the power of selected groups of muscles can be increased, which is the same as the attainment of strength. This increase in strength can be maintained after the trance state through the use of post-hypnotic suggestion. The body temperature can be made to increase in the trance of hypnosis; this is found in the yoga sutras as well. The action of the organs can be changed, and this is a siddhi too. Hearing is said, can be made more acute in the trance of hypnosis, this is analogous to the siddhi of divine hearing.
Similarities in the therapeutic process and techniques in hypnosis and Patanjali yoga sutras Hypnosis and hypnotherapy is a paradigmatic phenomenon.
It challenges fundamental assumptions of self and reality. An individual's perceptions and beliefs can be overturned through hypnosis and hypnotherapy. Hypnotherapy also believes that schemas or cognitive structures regulate psychological functioning or adaptation and give meaning to contextual relationships. Assignment of meaning at the conscious and unconscious level activates behavioral, emotional, and other strategies of adaptation.
One of the essential axioms of hypnotherapy is that meanings do not always represent reality but are a construction of a given context or goal and are subject to cognitive distortions. Some individuals are vulnerable to cognitive distortions. Like the techniques described in the yoga sutras for therapeutic benefits, hypnosis too induces relaxation, which is effective in reducing anxiety.
It also promotes ego strengthening through the repetition of positive suggestions to oneself that get embedded in the unconscious mind. These then exert an automatic influence on feelings, thoughts, and behaviors. This enhances one's self-confidence and self-worth. Hypnosis and the techniques of yoga sutras facilitate divergent thinking, it maximizes awareness among several levels of brain functioning.
They both have a direct impact on focus of attention and concentration. These facilitate in the reconstruction of dysfunctional realities. Even though modern psychotherapy adopts a curative paradigm and the yoga surtras of Patanjali operates through a preventive paradigm, there are similarities in the therapeutic techniques, and the therapeutic gain obtained from hypnosis and Patanjali yoga sutras.
Since it has already been pointed out that ancient Indian paradigm of consciousness is holistic and is related to mental health, the trance in yoga can be used in modern psychotherapeutic processes.
In India, the therapeutic process is closely linked to faith and hence it make sense to make use of the traditional therapeutic modalities in modern therapeutic paradigm. Yoga can be considered as a form of hypnosis and similarities between the trance of hypnosis and yoga has been noted.
The trance states were compared on the understanding of the phenomena of trance, the phenomena of trance, and the therapeutic techniques and benefits of both. The study was conducted in two phases. The first phase of the study dealt with gaining an understanding of the concept of trance in Patanjali yoga sutras, through a thematic analysis of the book Four Chapters on Freedom: A Commentary on the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali by Swami Satyananda Saraswati.
The thematic analysis of the book led to an understanding of the concept of trance in the yoga sutras. In the second phase of the study, these concepts were compared to the concepts of trance in hypnosis obtained through the literature on hypnosis to investigate whether or not there exist similarities.
The findings of the study show that there are similarities between the trance in hypnosis and the trance in Patanjali yoga sutras. These similarities are present in the following areas: The induction and deepening of the trance states in hypnosis and that of Samadhi The phenomena present in hypnosis and the kinds of siddhis that are obtained through Samadhi The therapeutic techniques and the therapeutic process in Patanjali yoga sutra and hypnosis.
These findings show that there are similarities in the two states and it needs to be explored further to incorporate the concepts of yoga in the modern therapeutic domain. These concepts can be used not only as preventative measures but as curative measures too. John ER. A theory of consciousness. Curr Dir Psychol Sci. What is an altered state of consciousness? Philosophical Psychology. Cunningham J. Ancient Egyptian mythology: A model for consciousness.
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New York: Guliford Press; Gruzelier J. A working model of the neurophysiology of hypnosis: A review of evidence. Contemp Hypn. Kihlstrom JF. The domain of hypnosis revisited. Oxford: Oxford University Press; An integrative cognitive theory of hypnosis and hypnotisability. The Highly Hypnotizable Person. New York: Brunnur-Routledge; Altered states of consciousness and hypnosis in the twenty first century.
Main article: Niyama The second component of Patanjali's Yoga path is called niyama, which includes virtuous habits, behaviors and observances the "dos". Patanjali does not list any specific asana, except the terse suggestion, "posture one can hold with comfort and motionlessness". It is a process of retracting the sensory experience from external objects. It is a step of self extraction and abstraction. Pratyahara is not consciously closing one's eyes to the sensory world, it is consciously closing one's mind processes to the sensory world.
Pratyahara empowers one to stop being controlled by the external world, fetch one's attention to seek self-knowledge and experience the freedom innate in one's inner world. If in the sixth limb of yoga one focused on a personal deity, Dhyana is its contemplation. If the concentration was on one object, Dhyana is non-judgmental, non-presumptuous observation of that object.
Dhyana is uninterrupted train of thought, current of cognition, flow of awareness. Dharana is a state of mind, Dhyana the process of mind. Dhyana is distinct from Dharana in that the meditator becomes actively engaged with its focus. Patanjali defines contemplation Dhyana as the mind process, where the mind is fixed on something, and then there is "a course of uniform modification of knowledge".