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due viaggi organizzati dalla Dante di Bienna e dal portale go-Italy. Venite numerose/i e . ne dei mesi estivi, un Circolo Letterario Italiano per leggere, commen-. Acutely aware of this political context, Dante's own comments about miracles should be .. M.C. Tarsi, Giovanni Guidiccioni «oltre il circolo del Petrarca». have more recently demonstrated, the years in which Dante was alive and writing e il tempio: la società cristiana e il circolo virtuoso della ricchezza fra http:// osakeya.info osakeya.info 38 Joel Kaye.
Supporting and background characters are mostly fictional, as are those directly involved with the murders. The Dante Club begins with the murder of fictional Massachusetts Chief Justice Artemus Healey, who had avoided taking a position to stop or support the escaped slaves of the South.
Found by his chambermaid near a white flag atop a short wooden staff, Healey had been hit in the head and then left in his garden to be eaten alive by strategically placed maggots and stung by hornets.
Then Reverend Talbot, who was paid by the Harvard Corporation to write against Dante, was found dead in an underground cemetery, buried up to his waist upside down, his feet burnt and buried over money that he had accepted as a bribe. Members of the Dante Club, a group of poets translating the Divine Comedy from Italian into English, notice the parallels between the murders and the punishments detailed in Dante's Inferno.
Then, Phineas Jennison, both a wealthy contributor to the Harvard Corporation and friend to the translators a "schismatic" , is sliced open exactly down the middle—all killed in extreme fashion and undeniable resemblance to the punishments of people in Dante's Inferno. Driven partly mad by the trauma of his war experiences, Teal hears Dante Club member George Washington Greene giving sermons on Dante to other soldiers, and becomes convinced that Dante alone understood the need for perfect justice in the world.
Adopting a new name and identity intending to become one with the poet, but being unable to spell "Alighieri" , he takes it upon himself to protect Dante and release Hell's punishments as indicated in the Inferno , in order to purify the city.
Teal finds each of his victims when learning of their involvement in the stopping of the translations, which become their respective sins. The club eventually tries to capture him, with the aid of Boston's first African-American policeman Nicholas Rey, the only other person who saw the connection, while he is attempting to punish Harvard Treasurer Dr.
Moreover, whatever is brought to full realization with the aid of miracles is willed by God, and consequently comes about by right.
Vinay, Firenze, Sansoni, , p. Non ha persuaso nessuno questa interpretazione della storia come gara o duello presieduto da Dio.
Brown, Society and the Supernatural: If such wonders can occur within the created world through secondary causes, surely God can operate di- rectly, outside the normal course of nature, when he produces miracles. By acting outside the normal order of nature, God makes his power manifest, demonstrating that the whole of nature is subject to his will. Yet the question arises: But be- cause he is utterly immutable, it is impossible for God to will something which he has previously rejected or to learn something new or order it in a new way.
God will not change his mind about Creation. The ordained order of nature and grace is thus secure from future divine modifica- tions.
Book Three, Part Two: Providence, Notre Dame, Ind. God-as-monarch either operated accord- ing to his ordained power, de iure, or according to his absolute power, de facto, that is, miraculously. Even when acting against his own created or- der, God never acted inordinately because whatever he willed was law. Hostiensis, for example, ignoring precedent and established doctrine, argued that the pope could by his fullness of powers relax even the substantial monastic vows of poverty and chastity.
God cannot will what he does not will 3. He cannot change the past and make undone things that have been already done 3. And he cannot absolve some- one who has not already repented 3.
Courtenay, Capacity and Volition: Lubrina, ; F. Oakley, Omnipo- tence, Covenant, and Order: Courtenay, Capacity and Volition, pp.
Lectura in quinque Decretalium Gregorianarum libros, Venezia, repr. See discussion in Courtenay, Capacity and Volition, pp.
In Paradiso 5, in apparent contrast with Hostiensis, Dante instead denies that the Pope could abrogate religious vows; see M. Consider instead the miracles of Roman history Dante culls from pagan historians and poets primarily Lucan and Vergil to include in Monarchia: Dante carefully selects many of these exemplars and re-organizes and redeploys them in three sections of Book 2 of Monarchia: Nardi, in Dante, Opere minori, vol. Storia e testi 5, Milano e Napoli, Ricciardi, , pp.
Chiesa, A. Tabarroni, and D. Ellero, Roma, Salerno Editrice, , pp. De Robertis and C. Vasoli, in Dante, Opere minori, vol.
In the section on miracles in Monarchia, Dante makes a series of tar- geted, significant changes to the material from Convivio. First off, two of the miracles are new: The story of the crying goose is the exam- ple closest to the text of Convivio, but even here Dante adds an important detail, one that actually contradicts his pagan sources.
In Monarchia the goose had never been seen before according to Livy geese were raised on the Campidoglio, as sacred to Juno. Imbuing his Roman miracles with a philosophical and theoretical framework they lacked in the Convivio, he thus enters the political-theological fray.
For Aquinas there are three grades of miracles. Miracles of the first degree supernatural are those events in which something is done by God which nature could never do,16 such as the sun reversing its course or standing still; or the parting of the sea. Miracles of the second degree contra-natural are those in which God does something which nature can do, but not in this order: As an early critic of the Monarchia Friar Guido Vernani astutely points out, these supposed miracles normally occur naturally naturaliter.
Vernani especially focuses his ridicule on the alarm-sounding goose since geese are wont to stay awake at night and even have been known to squawk! Vernani, De reprobatione Monarchie composite a Dante, 2.
Ellero, p. Vernani bolsters his attack by citing Augus- tine, who in the City of God 2. Brilli, I Ro- mani virtuosi del Convivio: Bartuschat and A. Robiglio, Ravenna, Longo Editore, , pp. To summarize: In Book 3, however, he rejects the use of supernatural miracles as justification for unbound action on the part of a papal sover- eign.
This contrast between Old Testament, preternatural miracles of the third degree and Christological, supernatural miracles of the first and sec- ond degrees also helps explain the final difficult sentence of chapter four. Sic Illum prorsus operari decebet qui cuncta sub ordinis pulcritudine ab ecterno providit, ut qui visibilis erat miracula pro invisibilibus ostensurus, idem invisibilis pro visibilibus illa ostenderet.
He thus clearly states that miracles belong to an ordained universe, a divine manifestation of extraordinary rather than absolutist action. We have already seen how Aquinas, for instance, similarly argues that miracles fall within the sphere of providence. In fact, one of the fundamental premises of Book 2, as set forth in chapter 2, is that God is an artist and that the world is his work of art.
Us- ing the heavens as his instrument, he seals the material of the sublunar world with the impression of his divine mind. This image of God-as-craftsman has a long history and was a favorite metaphor of the scholastics.
It is crucial for him that, in addition to be- ing a craftsman, God is also a narrator. This biblical book had been interpreted for centuries as an allegory and figura of the love that unites God and Christ to the Church or the human soul. In doing so, Dante chooses a hagiographical line that was not thoroughly dominant in the Franciscan tradition to call for a radical reform of the Church based on the value of love.
It is plausible that in the Heaven of the Sun, Dante should call Aquinas to testify and attribute to him a demonstration based on the sacred words of the Bible, perhaps reminding the reader that the real auctoritas on both virtue and vice is ultimately the book of God.
In other words, the conclusion to which a vertical reading seems to lead us is that only in the light of grace and its manifestations in the world can philosophy make proper sense of the nature of sin and virtue, of damnation and salvation.
Dante had clearly expressed the importance of teaching in If we read the Elevens vertically, from Hell to Paradiso xi, the reader is invited to consider how teaching and learning, as well as the virtuous life that avoids sin, are moti amoris [motions of love, caused by love]. Significantly for our exegetical exercise, clarity of exposition is also a concern in Purgatorio xi, where Dante rewords the Pater noster in order explain its value to the reader.
Atti del Convegno internazio Significantly he does so to demonstrate that the usurer uses his work neither to advance people, nor to produce goods; he hopes to earn money with money.
Clearly we need to make sense of the extreme measures taken by Dante in the explicit of his complex canto. The discussion on usury was perhaps inspired by the fact that the issue had become more and more slippery at the hands of his contemporaries around the beginning of the s. Interestingly, some historians believe that the first notion of money as capital, the root of our modern economic system, was in fact introduced by the Franciscan John Peter Olivi.
Rivista tr In this canto, there is no doubt that poverty is a focal point of the vita of St Francis: Lady Poverty is in fact the sponsa of a miraculous love story. However, Poverty is not exclusively presented as a Christian bride; Amiclas is also remembered as one of her spouses. My overall feeling is that it has at least as far as Inferno xi is concerned. Charity is seen as the core of all human activities; only the absence of charity defines vice; art is good as long as it contributes to the appreciation of the rule of love in Creation; and, finally, philosophy is primarily useful in confirming the message of the Bible, the one great poem of love.
The Bible quoted is the Approved King James translation. Migne, vols Paris: Garnier, , , col. Whoever thou art that hast sinned, and hesitates to exercise penitence for thy sin, despairing of thy salvation, hear David groaning. To thee Nathan the prophet hath not been sent, David himself hath been sent to thee. Hear him crying, and with him cry: hear him groaning, and with him groan; hear him weeping, and mingle tears; hear him amended, and with him rejoice.
Inferno, ed. Rassegna bibliografica dantesca , From Communities to Individuals, ed. Purgatorio, ed. Paradiso, ed. Atti del Convegno Internazionale di Studi, Ravenna, 12 novembre , ed. Rassegna dantesca 53 , Francesco e di S.
Since we are reading vertically it might be interesting to note that Francis is presented here as a true archimandrite, i.