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Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger. If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications. Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosis , hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death. Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes. Specialty Endocrinology Symptoms Frequent urination, increased thirst, increased hunger Complications Diabetic ketoacidosis , nonketotic hyperosmolar coma, heart disease, stroke, chronic kidney failure, foot ulcers Diagnostic method High blood sugar Treatment Healthy diet, physical exercise Medication Insulin, metformin Frequency million 8.
There are three main types of diabetes mellitus: This form was previously referred to as "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" IDDM or "juvenile diabetes". The cause is unknown. As the disease progresses alack of insulin may also develop. This form was previously referred to as "non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" NIDDM or "adult-onset diabetes". The most commoncause is excessive bodyweight and not enough exercise. Symptoms may develop rapidly weeks or months in type 1 DM, while they usually develop much more slowly and may be subtle or absent in type 2 DM.
Several other signs and symptoms can mark the onset of diabetes although they are not specific to the disease.
In addition to the known ones above, they include blurry vision, headache, fatigue, slow healing of cuts, and itchy skin. Prolonged high blood glucose can cause glucose absorption in the lens of the eye, which leads to changes in its shape, resulting in vision changes. A number of skin rashes that can occur in diabetes are collectively known as diabetic dermadromes.
This type can be further classified as immune-mediated or idiopathic. The majority of type 1 diabetes is of the immune-mediated nature, in which a T cell- mediated autoimmune attack leads to the loss of beta cells and thus insulin.
Most affected people are otherwisehealthy and of a healthy weight when onset occurs. Sensitivity and responsiveness to insulin are usually normal, especially in the early stages.
Type 1 diabetes can affect children or adults, but was traditionally termed "juvenilediabetes" becausea majority of these diabetes cases were in children. A number of lifestyle factors are known to be important to the development of type 2 DM, including obesity defined by a body mass index of greater than 30 , lack of physicalactivity, poor diet, stress, and urbanization. Even thosewho are not obese often have a high waist—hip ratio. A positive result, in the absence of unequivocal high blood sugar, should be confirmed by a repeat of any of the abovemethods on a different day.
Itis preferable to measurea fasting glucoselevel because of the ease of measurement and the considerabletime commitment of formalglucose tolerance testing, which takes two hours to complete and offers no prognostic advantageover the fasting test. Dietary changes known to be effective in helpingto prevent diabetes includemaintaininga diet rich in whole grains and fiber, and choosing good fats, such as the polyunsaturatedfats found in nuts, vegetable oils, and fish.
Limiting sugary beverages and eating less red meat and other sources of saturated fat can also help prevent diabetes. Tobacco smoking is also associated with an increased risk of diabetesand its complications,so smoking cessation can be an important preventive measure as well. The relationshipbetween type 2 diabetesand the main modifiablerisk factors excess weight, unhealthydiet, physical inactivityand tobacco use is similarin all regions of the world. There is growing evidence that the underlying determinantsof diabetesare a reflection of the major forces driving social, economic and cultural change: There are a number of different classes of anti-diabetic medications.
Some are available by mouth, such as metformin, while others are only available by injection such as GLP-1 agonists. Type 1 diabetes can only be treated with insulin, typically with a combination of regular and NPH insulin, or synthetic insulin analogs.
In other circumstances, general practitioners and specialists share care in a team approach. Home telehealth support can be an effective management technique. These yoga asana are believed to increase the blood supply, massage the organs, activate its cells and thereby cause an increase in secretion of insulin; reducing high blood sugar. This can result in better glucose uptake and reduction of blood sugar. Yoga Asana like corpse pose, bridge pose child pose and yoga nidra has been seen beneficial in controlling hypertension.
Plan what you eat and follow a balanced meal plan. See your dietitian at least once a year. Exercise at least five times a week for 30 minutes each session. Talk to your doctor before starting any exercise program.
Tell your doctor what kind of exercise you want to do so adjustments can be made to your medicine schedule or meal plan, if necessary. Follow your medicine schedule as prescribed by your doc tor.
Know what medicines brand and generic names you are taking and how they work. Keep a list of your medicines with you at all times. Test your blood glucose regularly, as recommended by your health care provider. Test your blood glucose more often when you're sick.
Try to continuously keep your blood glucose level at the recommended range. Test your urine for ketones if recommended by your doctor. Record your blood glucose and urine ketone test results in a record keeping log. We receive 23 from our mother and 23 from our father. Egg and sperm cells have only one copy of each chromosome so that when they come together to form a baby, the baby has the normal 2 copies.
Three billion is a lot of base pairs, and together they contain an enormous amount of information. Working out the sequence of the base pairs in all our genes enables us to understand the code that makes us who we are. This knowledge can then give us clues on how we develop as embryos, why humans have more brainpower than other animals and plants, and what happens in the body to cause cancer. But establishing the sequence of three billion base pairs is a BIG task.
The great and ambitious research program that sought to do this was called the Human Genome Project. The idea of the Human Genome Project was born in the s, when scientists learned how to clone small bits of DNA, around the size of a gene.
To clone DNA, scientists cut out a fragment of human DNA from the long strand and then incorporate it into the genome of a bacteria, or a bacterial virus. The fragment is then is replicated within the bacterial cell many times and every time the bacterial cell divides, the new cells also contain the introduced D DNA fragment.
Bacterial cells reproduce prolifically, and so this process ends up making millions of cells that all contain the introduced DNA fragment, enough that researchers can study it in detail and figure out the sequence of the base pairs. With time, researchers have been able to study an ever greater number of different DNA fragments, that is, different genes.
It became clear that certain variant DNA sequences were associated with particular conditions: diseases such as cystic fibrosis or breast cancer, or normal, non-harmful variants like red hair. There was initially a lot of opposition to the Human Genome Project, even from some scientists. Considering only around 1. The important role the junk DNA plays in gene regulation wasnt yet appreciated.
A cell in human body is simply invisible to naked eye, Microscopes are essential to view them.