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Key words: soil mechanics, foundation engineering, tunnelling other sources; books, internet, other lecture notes, including my own; and translated from. [PDF] CE Soil Mechanics (SM) Books, Lecture Notes, 2marks with answers, Important Part B 16marks Questions, Question Bank & Syllabus. By. 2. Erode Sengunthar Engineering College, Department Of Civil Engineering, S. Boobathiraja-A.P, Soil Mechanics Notes. Page 2. CE SOIL MECHANICS.
The coarse stones that are created in mountainous areas are transported downstream by gravity, often together with water in rivers. By internal friction the stones are gradually reduced in size, so that the material becomes gradually finer: gravel, sand and eventually silt.
In flowing rivers the material may be deposited, the coarsest material at high velocities, but the finer material only at very small velocities. This means that gravel will be found in the upper reaches of a river bed, and finer material such as sand and silt in the lower reaches.
The Netherlands is located in the lower reaches of the rivers Rhine and Meuse.
In general the soil consists of weathered material, mainly sand and clay. This material has been deposited in earlier times in the delta formed by the rivers. Much fine material has also been deposited by flooding of the land by the sea and the rivers.
This process of sedimentation occurs in many areas in the world, such as the deltas of the Nile and the rivers in India and China. In the Netherlands it has come to an end by preventing the rivers and the sea from flooding by building dikes.
The process of land forming has thus been stopped, but subsidence continues, by slow tectonic movements. In order to compensate for the subsidence of the land, and sea water level rise, the dikes must gradually be raised, so that they become heavier and cause more subsidence.
This process must continue forever if the country is to be maintained.
People use the land to live on, and build all sort of structures: houses, roads, bridges, etcetera. It is the task of the geotechnical engineer to predict the behavior of the soil as a result of these human activities. The problems that arise are, for instance, the settlement of a road or a railway under the influence of its own weight and the traffic load, the margin of safety of an earth retaining structure a dike, a quay wall or a sheet pile wall , the earth pressure acting upon a tunnel or a sluice, or the allowable loads and the settlements of the foundation of a building.
For all these problems soil mechanics should provide the basic knowledge. The need for the analysis of the behavior of soils arose in many countries, often as a result of spectacular accidents, such as landslides and failures of founda- tions. In the Netherlands the slide of a railway embankment near Weesp, in see Figure 1.
Many of the basic principles of soil mechanics were well known at that time, but their combination to an engineering discipline had not yet been completed.
The first important contributions to soil mechanics are due to Coulomb, who published an important treatise on the failure of soils in , and to Rank- ine, who published an article on the possible states of stress in soils in In Darcy published his famous work on the permeability of soils, for the water supply of the city of Dijon.
The principles of the mechanics of continua, including statics and strength of materials, were also well known in the 19th century, due to the work of Newton, Cauchy, Navier and Boussi- nesq. All the civil engineering projects have planning, design and construction section.
In all this section basic knowledge about the site and about the material is more important. We are developing our nations of infrastructures.
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