The relaxation response pdf

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Page 1. Page 2. Page 3. Page 4. Page 5. Page 6. Page 7. Page 8. Page 9. Page Page Page PDF | Aging adults are vulnerable to the effects of a negative emotional state. The relaxation response (RR) is a mind-body intervention that. Editorial Reviews. Review. When you look at the popularity of mind- body medicine today, it's hard to understand what a groundbreaking book this.

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The Relaxation Response Pdf

Steps to Elicit the Relaxation Response. The following is the technique reprinted with permission from Dr. Herbert Benson's book. The Relaxation Response. The Relaxation Response is a natural innate protective mechanism which allows us to turn off harmful effects from stress through changes that decrease heart. The term, 'Relaxation Response' was coined by Dr. Herbert Benson, book The Relaxation Response, Dr. Benson describes the scientific.

Abstract Although the physiological and biochemical changes that occur during the acute stress response have been well-characterized, the contrasting changes that underlie the relaxation response evoked by various mind-body techniques are less understood. To help guide future mind-body research, we present a conceptual model that integrates patterns of change at the physiological and molecular levels. In addition, we point to future research opportunities and discuss how repeated elicitation of these responses could influence the health of patients. One of the first attempts to understand the connection between the mind and body occurred nearly years ago when Harvard physiologist Walter Cannon described the fight or flight response, identifying a consistent set of physiological changes that occur when animals, including humans, are exposed to stress. The SR consists of an involuntary set of physiological alterations that include increases in heart rate, blood pressure, respiration rate, and metabolic shifts that liberate energy. More than 30 years ago, cardiologist Herbert Benson, one of the authors of this article, characterized another physiological state, the relaxation response RR. As new technologies such as biochemical assays have become available, researchers have been able to investigate mechanistic changes that occur during these responses as well, initially focusing on hormones, but more recently on signaling molecules such as nitric oxide NO. Our primary aim in this article is to present a model that accounts for the physiological and biochemical changes that take place during exposure to acute stressors or elicitation of the RR and the relationship between the 2 responses. Physiological Changes The SR triggers a cascade of physiological responses. These include increases in volumetric oxygen consumption VO2 and respiration, dilation of the bronchiolar musculature and airways, increased blood pressure caused by increased cardiac output, and increased total peripheral resistance. It also triggers an increase of blood flow to the skin, splanchnic region, muscles, and heart. Together, these physiological responses produce a coordinated series of changes that enable the body to respond to stressful stimuli by providing energy to the areas that need it most. In a similar manner, a coordinated set of reproducible physiological changes have been observed during elicitation of the RR. They include reductions in volumetric oxygen consumption VO2 , carbon dioxide elimination, a slowing of the heart and respiration rates, a drop in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and an increase in heart rate variability.

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In that state, the heart rate increases, respiration becomes rapid and shallow, there is a rise in blood The relaxation response : Herbert Benson : Free Download Publication date Topics Stress management, Books to Borrow. Books for People with Print Disabilities. Internet Archive Books. Scanned in China.

Uploaded by Alethea Bowser on February 23, The relaxation response RR is a mind-body intervention that counteracts the harmful effects of stress. During situations perceived as being acutely stressful, the 2 main pathways activated are the sympatho-adreno-medullary SAM axis and the hypthothalamus-pituitary-adreno HPA axis.

The Relaxation Response

Both axes are activated by the hypothalamus secreting corticotrophin-releasing hormone CRH , which causes the pituitary gland to release adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH. In the more rapidly acting of these pathways, the SAM axis, ACTH stimulates the adrenal medulla to release the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine.

Once in the bloodstream, cortisol induces metabolic changes in the liver, resulting in increased glucose concentrations in blood and tissues.

The increased glucose produces adenosine triphosphate ATP to repair damaged cells and enables metabolically active cells throughout the body to respond to the stressor. To date, most studies of RR-related biochemical changes have examined those that occur over periods of weeks or months and, thus, fall outside the scope of this review.

Researchers examining potential relationships between the RR and HPA changes have tended to focus on the release of cortisol. However, their studies differ in the methods of measurement, the time of day the studies took place, and the extent of participant experience with eliciting the RR. To control for these variations, we selectively reviewed only those studies that measured acute changes in serum cortisol levels while controlling for diurnal rhythms.

Sudsuang and colleagues found Buddhist monks had significantly lower serum cortisol levels following a period of meditation than did members of a nonmeditating control group. Nitric oxide is a short-lived nitrogenous free radical that has been shown to mediate diverse physiological processes including cardiovascular, immune, and nervous system function. These include the measurement of NO in exhaled breath, the measurement of nitrites and nitrates NO degradation products in plasma, and the measurement of flow-mediated dilation FMD in arteries.

However, the usefulness of these measures of in situ responses to stress and the RR is limited by the fact that NOx levels in blood are influenced by several extraneous factors such as dietary nitrate intake and nitrate inhalation from polluted air.

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Through these processes, NO is thought to play an integral role in the development of atherosclerotic plaque. In terms of the immune system, NO has the capacity to influence the phenotype of inflammatory cells and thus is capable of influencing the character of immune responses.

Different isoforms of NOS have been identified including some that are constitutively expressed and others whose activation is associated with disease processes. For example, Lind and colleagues have shown that having healthy volunteers engage in 5 minutes of mental arithmetic impaired FMD in the brachial artery.

In Lind's study, the effects of stress on FMD were examined only once at the end of a 5-minute period of mental stress.

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