Digital electronics a practical approach by william kleitz pdf

Uploaded on 

 

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Kleitz, William. Digital electronics: a practical approach with VHDL/William Kleitz. (The Electrostatic Discharge Association) osakeya.info (Mini- Circuits. Digital-Electronics-a-Practical-Approach-William-Kleitz-9th-Edition. pdf - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. Digital electronics a practical approach with VHDL. Author(S) William Kleitz ( Author). Publication. Data. Boston: Pearson. Publication. Date. Edition. 9th ed.

Author:JACQULINE SCARBER
Language:English, Spanish, Indonesian
Country:Madagascar
Genre:Personal Growth
Pages:624
Published (Last):25.05.2016
ISBN:888-2-32429-514-7
Distribution:Free* [*Registration Required]
Uploaded by: SERGIO

46392 downloads 132707 Views 29.45MB PDF Size Report


Digital Electronics A Practical Approach By William Kleitz Pdf

Digital Electronics. A Practical Approach with VHDL. William Kleitz. Ninth Edition. Digital Electronics Kleitz Ninth Edition. Page 2. Pearson Education Limited. Review of Digital Electronics 9th Edition by William Kleitz. Created on: 6 December Digital Electronics A Practical Approach with VHDL. Digital Electronics: A Practical Approach, 8/E. William Kleitz. Publisher: For courses in Digital Electronics, Digital Systems, and Digital Design. Designed to be.

Schematic Interpretation Problems These problems are designed to give the student experience interpreting circuits and ICs in complete system schematic diagrams. The student is asked to identify certain components in the diagram, describe their operation, modify circuit elements, and design new circuit interfaces. This gives the student experience working with real-world, large-scale schematics like the ones that he or she will see on the job. Designing digital logic with FPGAs is becoming very popular in situations where high complexity and programmability are important. The student is asked to solve the design using a graphic design approach as well as a VHDL solution. After compiling the design, the student is then asked to perform a software simulation of the circuit before downloading the implementation to an actual FPGA. This provides a great avenue for in-class as well as online experimentation. Throughout the text, digital design solutions are first done with fixedfunction series logic gates, and then the same solution is completed using the VHDL hardware description language. It is important for todays technician to be able to read and modify VHDL programs as well as in some cases to write original programs to implement intermediate-level digital circuits. Laboratory Experimentation Giving the students the opportunity for hands-on laboratory experience is a very useful component of any digital course. An important feature of this text is that there is enough information given for any of the circuits so that they can be built and tested in the lab and that you can be certain they will give the same response as shown in the text. The lab exercises are best performed by first implementing the digital logic explained in the text using series fixed-function ICs, then repeating the same experiment using the free Altera Quartus II software. The Quartus II software allows you to draw the design using logic gates or by using series macrofunctions, or it can be designed in the VHDL hardware description language. The software then allows the student to visualize the operation on simulation waveforms before downloading the logic to an actual FPGA IC.

At the end of each chapter. An ON light is a 1. The problems at the end of each chapter are based on the circuits and theory pre- sented in the section corresponding to the file name. Try it. You need to understand binary to hexadecimal conversions [Section 1—8] before attempting this exercise. Schematic Interpretation Problems Note: Appendix G contains four schematic diagrams of actual digital systems. Cp is represented by Cp. Read the instructions for the circuit in the Description window at the bottom of the screen.

The problems are basically of three types: Before attempting any MultiSIM problems. With this software. The Word Generator is used to drive eight binary lights and two hexadecimal displays.

The data files for all MultiSIM examples and problems in this textbook are provided on the textbook Web site. Load the circuit file for Section 1— Find the quantity of the following devices that are used on the watchdog timer schematic. S 1— This circuit is used to demonstrate the conversion between the binary and hexadecimal numbering systems similar to Examples 1—12 and 1— Determine the component name and grid coordinates of the following com- ponents. It provides an accurate simulation of digital and analog circuit operation along with a simulation of instruments used by a technician to measure IC.

You will notice that the MultiSIM problems use a slightly different notation to represent certain variables. Q3 is a 2N located at A3. Find the date and revision number for the HC11D0 master board schematic.

DAC 1— To get alphanumeric data into 1— BCD is used only to represent 1— Check your answer by raising the levels on the appropriate tank s.

Digital 1— What would you expect the hex display to read if there is a high temperature in Tank D? To check your answer. Check your answer. Check your answer by raising the levels on the appropriate tanks s.

To route just one input at a 1— True noise still looks like a HIGH or 1— Return the temperature to a low level by holding the Ctrl key as you press 2 repeatedly.

Because it uses only two digits. Answers to Review Questions 1—1. You need to understand the operation of the geothermal facility monitoring system presented in Figure 1—7 before attempting this exercise. False 1— To convert the parallel data decimal digits 0 to 9 in 4-bit into serial before outputting to groupings. By powers of 2 1— The hex display should read 00H. Return all levels to a low state.

Could be either 1— False c Digital d Analog 1— Because digital quantities are 1— Because hexadecimal uses larities in the waveform will be 4-bit groupings heard. Turn the power switch ON. Special clock and timing circuits are used to produce clock waveforms to trigger the digital signals at precise intervals timing circuit design is covered in Chapter In this case.

Figure 2—1 shows the timing diagram of a typical digital sig- nal. Figure 2—2 shows a typical periodic clock waveform as it would appear on an oscilloscope displaying voltage versus time.

Figure 2—1 b is a photograph of an oscilloscope. Figure 2—1 a is a timing diagram showing the bit configuration 1 0 1 0 as it would appear on an oscilloscope. Digital systems respond to the digital state 0 or 1. The actual volt- age level standards of the various logic families are discussed in detail in Chapter 9.

The term periodic means that the wave- form is repetitive. In this chapter. In other words. Notice in the figure that the LSB comes first in time. The MSB could have been transmitted first as long as the system on the receiving end knows which method is used.

The y axis of the plot displays the voltage level and the x axis. Frequency is often referred to as cycles per second cps or pulses per second pps.

The basic unit for frequency is hertz Hz. How did you find that time? The period of the clock waveform is defined as the length of time from the falling edge of one pulse to the falling edge of the next pulse or rising edge to rising edge and is abbreviated tp in Figure 2—2.

The frequency of the clock waveform is defined as the reciprocal of the clock period. To review engineering notation. Figure 2—2 shows eight clock pulses. Written as a formula.. Repeat Example 2—2 for a frequency of 2.

Discussion ond clock waveform transmitted between a PC and a peripheral device. Misconception The period is labeled from Solution: What are the labels on the x axis and y axis of a digital signal mea- sured on an oscilloscope?

For those students who have Assume that the voltage levels were measured on an oscilloscope at a PC: Repeat Example 2—3 for a waveform frequency of 2.

Digital communications concerns itself with the transmission of bits 1s and 0s. Repeat Example 2—1 for a period of ns. What is the relationship between clock frequency and clock period? Review Questions 2—1. What is the frequency of a periodic waveform having a period of 50 ns?

What is the time period from the rising edge of one pulse to the rising edge of the next pulse on a waveform whose frequency is 8 MHz? Common transmission rates for a PC connected to the Internet via a telephone line are The rate. Repeat Example 2—4 for a period of The original 2—4 Parallel Representation version 1. For more Inside a computer. The ports labels COM on a PC are most often used for the serial communication connection to telephone lines.

Each bit from the original binary number occu- pies a separate clock period. Two parallel data techniques previously used by Web site listed in Appendix A. Communication over telephone lines like the Internet and computer-to-computer communication like office networks use serial communication see Figure 2—5. This tends to be expensive. Much higher serial speeds are achieved using the newer USB standard. The serial representation So is shown with respect to some clock wave- form Cp. The serial format uses a single electrical conductor and a common ground for the data to travel on.

Version 2. A plug-in card is used in a PC to provide network serial communication e. Several standards have been developed for high-speed serial communications. Modern Internet connections and office networks communicate at speeds ex- ceeding 1 million bps. Serial communication can be sped up by using extremely high-speed clock sig- nals. How 20 about serial 0 communication? The following examples further illustrate the use of serial and parallel repre- sentations.

If the clock period were 2 ms. Figure 2—8 illustrates the same binary number that was used in Figure 2—6 These 2 MSB 0 busses range anywhere from 1 to 32 bits in width and can transmit at speeds Figure 2—8 Parallel representation of the binary number Sketch the serial 1 CP 0 1 2 3 data on a single 0 line relative to the 1 clock reference.

Assume a clock frequency of 4 kHz. Because each period is 0. Figure 2—9 shows the representation of the 4-bit number 0 1 1 1. So 0 1 20 0 1 21 Sketch the same 0 data in parallel P by using several o 1 lines.

If the clock frequency is 5 MHz. What advantage does parallel have over serial in the transmission of digital signals? During the first period the first column. The next eight traces show the parallel output data PO-P7. The top trace in the Logic Analyzer displays a clock reference waveform CP of 3 clock periods. Which system requires more electrical conductors and circuitry. Review Questions 2—9. The third trace shows the serial output data SO.

When their contacts are open OFF. Figures 2—13 a and b show the single- pole. Another way to switch digital levels is by use of semiconductor devices such as diodes and transistors. When used in a digital circuit. How long will it take to transmit three 8-bit binary strings in serial if the clock frequency is 5 MHz?

Repeat Question 2—11 for an 8-bit parallel system. Ohm- meter meter a b Figure 2—13 Manual switch: One way that switching is accomplished is to make and break a connection between two electrical conductors by way of a manual switch or an electromechanical relay. In Figure 2—14 b. PLCs are microprocessor-based systems that are programmed to perform complex logic operations. They use a programming technique called ladder logic to monitor and control several processes.

Figure 2—14 shows the physical layout of an electromechanical relay. In Figure 2—14 a the magnetic coil is energized by placing a voltage at terminals C1—C2. This relay is called normally closed NC because. The diode D1 is placed across the relay coil to protect it from arcing each time the coil is deenergized. There are several disadvantages. A relay is also much slower than a semiconductor. Timing diagrams are very use- ful for comparing one waveform to another because the waveform changes states 1 or 0 relative to time.

When the switch SW in Figure 2—15 a is closed. In Figure 2—15 a relay is used as a shorting switch in an electric circuit. To energize the relay coil. When the switch in Figure 2—15 b is closed. It will take several milliseconds to switch. This total isolation is important in many digital applications. The voltage-divider equation see Appendix F is used to calculate Vout as follows: In Figure 2— When Cp goes LOW 0.

This is called a normally open NO relay because at rest. Coil energized. Appendix F R1 provides several examples R1 of opens and shorts to illustrate their effect on circuits. The following examples illustrate electronic switching and will help to prepare you for more complex timing analysis in subsequent chapters.

Coil deenergized. See Appendix F for a review of opens and shorts. Run the simulation to create the waveforms shown in Figure 2— When the R2 contacts are closed R2 is energized.

MultiSIM Exercise: Make the following changes. Remember that Vout is the voltage measured from the 10 V point in question to ground. When Cp is LOW.

Most electronics students should also take a separate course in electronic devices to cover the in-depth theory of the operation of diodes and transistors. In Chapter 9. Review Questions 2— A diode is a semiconductor device that allows current to flow in one direction but not the other.

How does a normally open relay differ from a normally closed relay? Describe the operation of a relay coil and relay contacts. Most digital systems are based on semiconductor technology.

Bias is the voltage necessary to cause a semiconductor device to conduct or cut off current flow. Notice in the figure that for the reverse-biased condition. A diode is not a perfect short in the forward-biased condition.

We use the silicon diode because it is most commonly used in digital circuitry. In the forward-biased condition. A reverse-biased diode will not allow current flow because its anode voltage is equal to or more negative than its cathode.

The voltage-versus-current curve shown in Figure 2—24 shows the characteristics of a diode. The term forward biased refers to a diode whose anode voltage is more positive than its cathode.

Iforw Vrev 0. A diode is analogous to a check valve in a water system see Figure 2— Only possible direction of water flow Figure 2—23 Water system check valve. The following examples and the problems at the end of the chapter demonstrate the effect that diodes have on electric circuits. Ideal 0. This fact is better illustrated in Figure 2— What this means is that current will flow only if the anode is more positive than the cathode.

Three distinct regions make up a bipolar transistor: D4 is reverse biased. D6 is reverse biased. D7 is forward biased. Figure 2—27 shows the physical layout and symbol for an NPN transistor. D5 is forward biased. In a PNP transistor. N-type silicon is made by bombarding pure silicon with atoms having structures with one more electron than silicon does.

D8 is reverse biased open.

D2 is reverse biased. P-type silicon is made by bombarding pure silicon with atoms having structures with one less electron than silicon does. The diode is forward biased if the anode is more positive than the cathode.

A forward-biased diode has how many volts across its terminals? D1 is forward biased. To forward bias a diode. D8 is reverse biased. D3 is forward biased. The transistor is most commonly made of silicon that has been altered into N-type material and P-type material. It is a three-terminal semiconductor component that allows an input signal at one of its terminals to cause the other two terminals to become a short or an open circuit.

Because D6 is reverse biased open. This causes the collector-to-emitter junction to short. In the figure. In Figure 2—28 a. The rules of transistor switching are as follows: Figure 2—28 shows how an NPN transistor functions as a switch in an electronic circuit. In an electronic circuit.

Applying a positive voltage or 0 V from base to emitter turns it OFF. In an NPN transistor. NPN circuits are much more common in industry and will be used most often in this book. Digital input signals are usually brought in at the base of the transistor. The collector is shorted directly to ground. The following examples use timing analy- sis to compare the input and output waveforms. With the transistor OFF. In Figure 2—28 b.

Free Digital Electronics: A Practical Approach with VHDL (9th Edition…

From the voltage-divider equation. Notice the difference in Vout as compared to Example 2— Now the collector is shorted to ground. Figure 2—35 shows how a common-emitter-connected transistor switch can be used to perform the same function.

When Vin equals 0 0 V. So right away you might say.

One basic function of a TTL integrated circuit is as a complementing switch. Vout will equal 4. The inverter is used to take a digital level at its input and complement it to the opposite state at its output 1 becomes 0. Vout will drop to 2.

When a transistor is turned ON. Name the three pins on a transistor. TTL integrated circuits use a combination of several transistors. Transistor Q1 is the input transistor used to drive Q2. The is called a pin DIP dual-in-line package and costs less than 24 cents. It uses another transistor Q4 in place of RC to act like a varying resistance. Q4 will be cut off totally. This combination of Q3 and Q4 is referred to as the totem-pole arrangement. Diode D1 is used to protect Q1 from negative voltages that might inadvertently be placed at the input.

D2 is used to ensure that when Q3 is saturated. A single TTL integrated-circuit IC package such as the has six complete logic circuits fabricated into a single silicon chip. In that chapter. Q4 is cut off acts like a high RC when the output transistor Q3 is saturated. TTL is a very popular family of integrated circuits. In subsequent chapters. The 14 pins. VCC is the abbreviation used to signify the power supply to the integrated circuit.

The has 14 metallic pins connected to the outside of a plas- tic case containing the silicon chip. Figure 2—40 shows three different ICs next to a pencil to give you an idea of their size. The symbol for each inverter is a triangle with a circle at the output. ICs are configured as DIPs to ensure that the mechanical stress exerted on the pins when being inserted into a socket is equally distributed and that.

These latter pins are denoted by the letters NC. In the case of the Figure 2—41 shows four switching circuits that employ switches.

The entire circuit shown in Figure 2—37 is contained inside each of the six inverters. The pin configuration of the is shown in Figure 2— The circle is used to in- dicate the inversion function. Although never shown in the pin configuration top view of digital ICs.

Figure 2—40 Photograph of three commonly used ICs: Because of that. With the switch in the UP position the current flows through the lower circuit. The current actually flows through LED4 into the output pin of U2A pin 2 of the shown in Figure 2—39 and then down into ground via the ground pin 7 shown in Figure 2— In the previous circuits.

If you have already installed MultiSIM on your computer. The three voltmeters in the circuit show the voltage levels at various stages. Increase the voltage back up by repeatedly pressing Shift-A.

In later chapters we learn why this is important be- cause the switches in Figure 2—41 a and b are replaced by digital logic ICs that may not be able to pass 10 mA as the transistor can. With the switch DOWN. In Figure 2—41 a. One advantage of using logic gates is that you do not need to provide 5-V and 0-V lev- els as the input to the circuit as we did above.

This is definitely a HIGH input 1 to the inverters. The tran- sistor base current required to turn ON a transistor is typically 0. With the switch thrown DOWN. At the same time. Figure 2—42 shows the pin configuration for a CMOS hex inverter. In this illustration. Notice that when the voltage drops below half. The disadvantage of using CMOS is that generally its switching speed is slower than TTL and it is susceptible to burnout due to electrostatic charges if not handled properly.

Run the simula- tion and watch the active LED as you throw the switch by pressing the space bar. Run the simulation and watch the ac- tive LED as you throw the switch by pressing the space bar. The major advantage of using CMOS is its low power consumption. A voltage of 0 V is used for the 0 level. In a common-emitter transistor circuit.

The digital level for 1 is commonly represented by a voltage of 5 V in digital systems. SMDs have also significantly lowered the cost of manufacturing printed-circuit boards. Complete system densities can increase using SMDs because they can be placed closer together and can be mounted to both sides of a printed-circuit board.

It is soldered in holes in a circuit board or placed in a socket for easy removal. They are bent down and under in a J-bend configuration. Another version of the grid array is the pin grid array PGA.

An oscilloscope can be used to observe the rapidly changing voltage- versus-time waveform in digital systems. This reduction occurs because SMDs are soldered directly to a metalized foot- print on the surface of a PC board. This topic is discussed further in Chapter 9. The PLCC is square. This also tends to decrease the capacitive and inductive problems that occur in digital systems operating at higher frequencies.

Surface-mount devices SMDs have fulfilled this need. The SO is a dual-in-line plastic package with leads spaced 0. For even higher pin counts. To illustrate the size difference.

The term given to an integrated circuit.

Index of /~rasmus/Advanced Digital Design/Book

Dual-in-line packages. The transistor is the basic building block of the modern digital IC. A measure of the number of cycles or pulses occurring each second. The most common pin layout for integrated circuits.

A term used in transistor switching signifying that the collector-to-emitter junction is turned off or is not allowing current flow. It can be switched on or off by applying the appropriate voltage at its base connection.

Glossary Bias: The voltage necessary to cause a semiconductor device to conduct or cut off current flow. It comes from the fact that each inte- grated circuit comes from a single chip of silicon crystal.

As an electronic switch. The pins are aligned in two straight lines. Integrated circuits are being used to perform the functions that once re- quired several hundred discrete semiconductors.

Logic State: A 1 or 0 digital level. A family of integrated circuits used to perform logic functions in digital circuits. Complementary metal oxide semiconductor. Diodes are used in digital circuitry whenever there is a requirement for current to flow in one direction but not in the other.

Integrated Circuit: The fabrication of several semiconductor and electronic devices transistors. A logic circuit that changes its input into the opposite logic state at its out- put 0 to 1 and 1 to 0.

Its unit is the hertz Hz. A semiconductor device used to allow current flow in one direction but not the other. A device can be forward or reverse biased. The CMOS is noted for its low power consumption but sometimes slow speed. Energized Relay Coil: By applying a voltage to the relay coil. Electromechanical relays are capable of forming shorts and opens in circuits requiring high current values but not high speed. Hex Inverter: An integrated circuit containing six inverters on a single DIP package.

An electronic measuring device used in design and troubleshooting to display a waveform of voltage magnitude y axis versus time x axis. The parallel format requires several conductors but is much faster than the serial format. They are the most popular ICs used in digital circuitry today. The transmission of binary data in the serial format requires only a single conductor with a ground reference.

A semiconductor device that can be used as an electronic switch in digi- tal circuitry. The binary logic states are transmitted 1 bit at a time. A digital signal representation that uses one line or channel to transmit binary information. A term used in transistor switching that signifies that the collector-to- emitter junction is turned on.

The measurement of time from the beginning of one periodic cycle or clock pulse to the beginning of the next. Totem Pole: The term used to describe the output stage of most TTL integrated circuits. Problems Sections 2—1 and 2—2 2—1. The more practice you get, the easier the course will be. I wish you the best of luck in your studies and future employment.

Dale A. Also, thanks to my students of the past 25 years who have helped me to develop better teaching strategies and have provided suggestions for clarifying several of the explanations contained in this book, and to the editorial and production staff at Prentice Hall. Convert any number in one of the four number systems decimal, binary, octal, and hexadecimal to its equivalent value in any of the remaining three numbering systems.

Describe the format and use of binary-coded decimal BCD numbers. In a modern home, digital circuitry controls the appliances, alarm systems, and heating systems. Under the control of digital circuitry and microprocessors, newer automobiles have added safety features, are more energy efficient, and are easier to diagnose and correct when malfunctions arise.

Other uses of digital circuitry include the areas of automated machine control, energy monitoring and control, inventory management, medical electronics, and music. For example, the numerically controlled NC milling machine can be programmed by a production engineer to mill a piece of stock material to prespecified dimensions with very accurate repeatability, within 0.

Another use is energy monitoring and control. With the high cost of energy, it is very important for large industrial and commercial users to monitor the energy flows within their buildings. Effective control of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning can reduce energy bills significantly. More and more grocery stores are using the universal product code UPC to check out and total the sale of grocery orders as well as to control inventory and replenish stock automatically.

The area of medical electronics uses digital thermometers, life-support systems, and monitors. We have also seen more use of digital electronics in the reproduction of music. Digital reproduction is less susceptible to electrostatic noise and therefore can reproduce music with greater fidelity.

Digital electronics evolved from the principle that transistor circuitry could easily be fabricated and designed to output one of two voltage levels based on the levels placed at its inputs. The binary numbering system is made up of only 1s and 0s and is therefore used extensively in digital electronics. The other numbering systems and codes covered in this chapter represent groups of binary digits and therefore are also widely used.

Analog systems measure and respond to continuously varying electrical or physical magnitudes. Analog devices are integrated electronically into systems to continuously monitor and control such quantities as temperature, pressure, velocity, and position and to provide automated control based on the levels of these quantities. Figure 11 shows some examples of digital and analog quantities.

List three examples of analog quantities. Why do computer systems deal with digital quantities instead of analog quantities? An analog signal is a continuously variable electrical or physical quantity. A baseball player swings a bat in an analog motion. The velocity and force with which a musician strikes a piano key are analog in nature. Even the resulting vibration of the piano string is an analog, sinusoidal vibration.

So why do we need to use digital representations in a world that is naturally analog? The answer is that if we want an electronic machine to interpret, communicate, process, and store analog information, it is much easier for the machine to handle it if we first convert the information to a digital format.

A digital value is represented by a combination of ON and OFF voltage levels that are written as a string of 1s and 0s.

For example, an analog thermometer that registers 72F can be represented in a digital circuit as a series of ON and OFF voltage levels. Well learn later that the number 72 converted to digital levels is A good example of the use of a digital representation of an analog quantity is the audio recording of music.

Compact disks CDs and digital versatile disks DVDs are commonplace and are proving to be superior means of recording and playing back music. Musical instruments and the human voice produce analog signals, and the human ear naturally responds to analog signals.

So, where does the digital format fit in? Although the process requires what appears to be extra work, the recording industries convert analog signals to a digital format and then store the information on a CD or DVD.

1.-Digital Electronics a Practical Approach With VHDL 9th Edition

The CD or DVD player then converts the digital levels back to their corresponding analog signals before playing them back for the human ear. To be transmitted efficiently over the Internet, data compression schemes such as the MP3 standard are employed to reduce the number of bits fold. These pits, which are burned into the CD by the CD recorder, represent the 1s and 0s of the digital information the player needs to recreate the original data.

A CD contains up to million bytes of digital 1s and 0s 1 byte 8 bits. Another optical storage medium is the digital versatile disk DVD. It can hold up to 17 billion bytes of data! Figure 12 a. The first conversion illustrated is at a point on the rising portion of the analog signal. At that point, the analog voltage is 2 V. Two volts are converted to the digital string , as shown in Figure 12 b. The next conversion is taken as the analog signal in Figure 12 a is still rising, and the third is taken at its highest level.

This process continues throughout the entire piece of music to be recorded. To play back the music, the process is reversed. Digital-to-analog conversions are made to recreate the original analog signal see Figure If a high-enough number of samples are taken of the original analog signal, an almost-exact reproduction of the original music can be made.

These problems have been eradicated because, when imperfections are introduced to a digital signal, the slight variation in the digital level does not change an ON level to an OFF level, whereas a slight change in an analog level is easily picked up by the human ear as shown in Figure Analog irregularities will be heard by the human ear Still looks like an OFF Still looks like an ON Voltage Voltage Time b Figure 14 Adding unwanted electrostatic noise to a an analog waveform and b a digital waveform.

Another application of digital representations of analog quantities is data logging of alternative energy sources. Jaya Lakshmi rated it it was amazing Jul 19, Wayne rated it really liked it Dec 21, Daniel Salinas rated it liked it Dec 28, Christopher rated it really liked it Jan 07, Kristina Fischetti rated it did not like it Jun 28, Dharm Barot rated it really liked it May 29, Tint Swe rated it it was amazing Dec 18, Mmthomas rated it really liked it Mar 12, Tarun Kumar rated it it was amazing Jan 15, Sabri Uzuner rated it really liked it Jun 27, Jaylynn rated it it was amazing May 21, Danya Al-Masri rated it did not like it Sep 20, John Mcjohnnyman rated it liked it Mar 22, Ibrahim Mubarak rated it liked it Apr 17, Mike rated it it was ok Aug 10, Ivha Fanatik rated it liked it Mar 17, Edward Ripple rated it really liked it Dec 30, Gloryhound rated it really liked it Oct 17, Trapper Carrick rated it really liked it Oct 25, Himmatsingh rated it it was amazing Oct 15, Harsha rated it it was amazing Feb 01, Oct 23, Enhee Enhe added it.

Brian rated it liked it Sep 12, Roy added it Jul 14, Yuryhiryn is currently reading it Oct 06, Casper is currently reading it Jun 17, Murali Behara marked it as to-read Aug 22, Mariam Hassoon marked it as to-read Oct 02, Gian Carlo added it Nov 27, Dar Siason marked it as to-read Dec 01, Shaira added it Dec 02, Ked marked it as to-read Jan 10,

TOP Related


Copyright © 2019 osakeya.info.
DMCA |Contact Us