Gizi Pada Ibu Nifas Revisi - Download as Powerpoint osakeya.info), PDF File .pdf), Text osakeya.info) or view Kebutuhan Dasar Ibu Nifas Dan Menyusui. kebutuhan gizi ibu nifas pdf. Quote. Postby Just» Tue Jan 29, am. Looking for kebutuhan gizi ibu nifas pdf. Will be grateful for any help! Top. bagi ibu dan bayi.. Kebutuhan kalori dan zat Mempertahankan dan meningkatkan. Gizi adalah ikatan kimia yang diperlukan gizi bagi ibu Nifas: kebugaran.
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Nutrisi Ibu Nifas - Free download as Word Doc .doc /.docx), PDF File .pdf), Text mencukupi kebutuhan asi bayinya kebutuhan gizi pada masa nifas terutama. Gizi Pendidikan untuk Ibu menyusui harus: a. . Diagnosa, masalah dan kebutuhan ibu postpartum tergantung dari hasil pengkajian terhadap ibu 4. Identifikasi. KEBERHASILAN MENYUSUI PADA IBU POSTPARTUM memadai untuk memenuhi kebutuhan ibu dan keperawatan, gizi dan kebidanan yang pada.
Asuhan kebidanan pada Masa Nifas. Salemba Medika http: Aziz Alimul Hidayat, S. Kp dan Musrifatul Uliyah, S. Kebutuhan Dasar Manusia. EGC http: Mengkonsumsi tambahan kalori tiap hari makan diet berimbang untuk mendapatkan protein, mineral, dan vitamin yang cukup Pil zat besi harus diminum untuk menambah zat gizi setidaknya selama 40 hari pasca bersalin Minum Vitamin A Dapat mempengaruhi pertumbuhan, perkembangan dan kognisi.
Dianjurkan untuk konsumsi lemak omega 3 semacam ikan laut, kakap, tongkol. Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles. Never Split the Difference: Hidden Figures: Elon Musk: The Unwinding: An Inner History of the New America. Jump to Page. Search inside document. Kebutuhan airnya lebih banyak setiap harinya lebih dari 8 gelas perhari 4. Jika dikemas dalam kaleng. Kolak Pisang Makan malam Snack Kalau lapar saja: Snack Nutrisi Ibu Nifas Uploaded by ghinafansuri.
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Jump to Page. Search inside document. Manfaat Gizi Pada Ibu Nifas.? Sudden Death Mati mendadak setelah berhubungan seksual bisa terjadi karena pergerakan teknis dalam hubungan seksual di vagina bisa menyebabkan udara masuk ke dalam rahim karena mulut rahim masih terbuka.
Pada masa nifas banyak pembuluh darah dalam rahim yang masih terbuka dan terluka. Dalam kondisi ini pembuluh darah bisa menyedot udara yang masuk, dan membawanya ke jantung. Udara yang masuk ke jantung dapat mengakibatkan kematian mendadak. Keintiman tidak selalu di peroleh melalui sex. Jika sex memang belum memungkinkan, untuk sementara bermesraan saja dulu.
Bhakan melihat suami yang dengan lapang hati membantu mengerjakan pekerjaan rumah tangga atau meu terjun langsung ikut mengurus si kecil, bisa menjadi pengerat bagi kehidupan sex ibu berdua. Penyebab Apati Seksual pasca salin a.
Stress dan Traumatik Kelahiran bayi bisa menjadi pengalaman yang dapat menimbulkan traumatik terutama jika ibu belum dipersiapkan secukupnya.
Banyak ibu yang mempunyai pengharapan yang tidak realistik tentang kelahiran. Adanya luka episiolomi Hal ini bila penjahitan luka episiotomi dilakukan dengan tidak benar maka akan mengakibatkan rasa nyeri dan rasa tidak nyaman di saat ibu berjalan dan duduk. Keletihan Bagi seorang ibu yang baru dan belum berpengalaman selain harus mengerjakan pekerjaan rumah tangga yang biasa, ia juga harus menghadapi bayinya yang tidak mau tidur, sering menangis atau bermasalah dalam menyusu.
Maka ibu tentu menjadi letih dan lemas sehingga gairah seks pun merosot. Depresi Penyebabnya adalah keadaan tidak bersemangat akibat perasaan kelabu pasca persalinan. Perasaan ini biasanya terjadi dalam beberapa minggu setelah kelahiran bayi. Hal ini dapat terjadi depresi berat yang berupa: Keluhan yang timbul saat hubungan seksual masa nifas a.
Rasa Nyeri Hal ini disebabkan fungsi pembasahan vagina yang belum kembali seperti semula, atau luka yang masih dalam proses penyembuhan. Sensivitas berkurang Karena persalinan normal merupakan trauma bagi vagina yaitu melebarnya otot-otot vagina.
Bila saat hubungan terasa sakit jangan takut berterus terang dengan suami b.
Saat berhubungan suami harus sabar dan hati-hati d. Melakukan senam nifas atau olahraga ringan 6.
Hubungan Seksual Dilakukan Kembali Setelah Kelahiran Bayi Secara fisik aman untuk memulai hubungan seksual begitu darah merah berhenti dan ibu dapat memasukkan satu atau dua jarinya kedalam vagina tanpa rasa nyeri. Begitu darah merah berhenti dan ibu tidak merasakan ketidaknyamanan, aman untuk melakukan hubungan seksual kapan saja ibu siap.
Banyak budaya yang mempunyai tradisi menunda hubungan seksual sampai masa waktu tertentu, misalnya setelah 40 hari atau 6 minggu setelah persalinan. Keputusan tergantung pada pasangan yang ebrsangkutan. Sebenarnya menutupnya serviks ukur rahim serta normalnya kembali vagina membutuhkan waktu yang lebih singkat sekitar dua sampai tiga minggu. Sekarang umumnya diterima bahwa suatu pasangan dapat kembali melakukan hubungan seksual sesegera si ibu merasa siap melakukannya.
Pasangan melakukan hubungan seksual sebenarnya relatif tiap wanita berbeda-beda kesiapannya. Namun secara medis setelah tidak ada perdarahan lagi, bisa dipastikan ibu sudah siap berhubungan seks yaitu setelah masa nifas yang berlangsung selama hari. Tips untuk ibu pasca salin Agar gairah seks segera kembali berkobar setelah masa nifas, berikut ini hal-hal bermanfaat yang bisa dilakukan.
Menjaga agar badan tetap sehat. Ingat badan sehat berarti hubungan seks juga sehat b. Makan makanan yang bergizi cukup, cukup berarti tidak berlebihan dan tidak kurang c. Cukup istirahat d. Olahraga secara teratur e.
Hindari stres f.
Hindari merokok dan mengkonsumsi alkohol g. Kesimpulan Nifas adalah darah yang keluar setelah proses melahirkan. Bila saat hubungan terasa sakit jangan takut berterusterang dengan suami b. Melakukan senam nifas atau olahraga ringan B. Semoga dapat menambah ilmu pengetahuan dan wawasan kita semua.
Adapun saran yang dapat kami berikan yaitu untuk mahasiswa kebidanan khususnya agar lebih bisa mempelajari lagi tentang perubahan-perubahan yang terjadi pada ibu masa nifas termasuk hubungan seksual dan juga dapat memberikan solusi yang baik. Kami menyadari bahwa makalah ini masih jauh dari kesempurnaan. Oleh sebab itu, saran dan kritik yang bersifat membangun kami harapkan demi kesempurnaan makalah ini. Daftar Pustaka http: Konsep dan Aplikasi KebutuhanDasar Manusia: Jakarta Diposkan oleh midwife di A literature search revealed only 21 empirical studies conducted in the Arab world in the last 20 years.
This paper attempts to analyze the existing data for prevalence and risk factors associated with PPD in the target population. The results of review are discussed with implications for prevention and treatment. Postpartum Depression, risk factors, cultural considerations, Middle Eastern, Arab women. It is generally also agreed that while this illness can turn into major depression and carries substantial risk of morbidity and death, it is an underdiagnosed and underrated illness.
PPD typically occurs within the first three months after childbirth, lasts a minimum of two weeks, and can cause clinically significant impairment in daily functioning Reck et al. According to the World Health Organization , PPD symptoms include feelings of anxiety, hopelessness, decreased appetite, inability to concentrate, decreased interest in the baby or life in general, and altered sleep patterns.
The DSM-5 now also acknowledges coexisting symptoms of anxiety and panic Stone, As the DSM is based primarily on data from Western population, the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders for people of nonwestern backgrounds becomes challenging Haque, ; Roysircar, This is particularly true for PPD, as it is not fully understood and addressed in the DSM and is manifested differently in different parts of the world.
Table 1. Five or more out of 9 symptoms including at least one of depressed mood and loss of interest or pleasure in the same 2-week period. Each of these symptoms represents a change from previous functioning, and needs to be present nearly every day: Symptoms cause significant distress or impairment. Episode is not attributable to a substance or medical condition. Episode is not better explained by a psychotic disorder. There has never been a manic or hypomanic episode.
Exclusion e does not apply if a hypo manic episode was substance-induced or attributable to a medical condition.
This list is presented to increase awareness of the DSM Guidelines on criteria for diagnosing depression during postpartum period and may not include all symptoms of PPD. This should not be the only tool to diagnose PPD. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.
APA It is therefore essential to know the nature and extent of this problem as a lack of such knowledge has serious implications for diagnosis and treatment. This paper aims to examine the existing literature on the prevalence and risk factors in PPD and discuss implications for prevention and treatment. Studies qualified for this review if they met the following requirements: Nineteen studies from Middle- Eastern countries were identified, one each from Tunisia and Morocco, and one on Arab women living in Australia.
Overall, a total of 22 studies were examined, summarized, synthesized, and included as part of the literature review. Results The review resulted in 22 studies on PPD conducted in 12 countries: Twenty-one studies utilized a quantitative approach while one study used a qualitative method.
Table 2. Such variation is also evident in studies conducted within the same country. These statistics are consistent with a cohort study done by Affonso and colleagues , where the prevalence of PPD and anxiety in women from Asian countries were higher compared to Western countries. As illustrated in Table 2, studies vary regarding the increase or decrease of PPD during the first year post-partum. Some results show fluctuations during various points e.
Kheirabadi et al. This is consistent with a review of the literature conducted by Alici-Evcimen and Sudak in the United States. In addition, a history of chronic health problems and a lack of antenatal care are reported Chaaya et al. Eilat- Tsanani and colleagues showed that women diagnosed with PPD consulted with pediatricians and family physicians about a specific problem more often than those without a PPD diagnosis.
Psychological factors Psychological risk factors for PPD are extensively studied and several risk factors have been identified. In one study in the UAE, Green and colleagues found that body image and weight concerns also seemed to be stressful for postpartum women. Dissatisfaction with their body shape and weight increased the likelihood of more severe depression. Low self-esteem, low self-efficacy, and perceived lack of parenting knowledge are among other risk factors identified in these studies Mohamed et al.
The study of Arab women in the UAE by Ghubash and Eapen revealed that the majority of women who took part in the study did not recognize postnatal depression as a psychological issue but considered the problem a result of "evil eye" or "Jinn". In another study by Rizk, Nasser, Thomas, and Ezimokhai , Interestingly, women who gave birth by cesarean section as opposed to natural delivery reported depressive feelings more often.
Unplanned pregnancy is the most frequently reported obstetric risk factor for PPD. Kheirabadi and colleagues argued that while an unplanned pregnancy does not necessarily indicate an unaccepted one, women still have to cope with the long-term ramifications such as financial demands that are likely to occur. In this study, undesired gender of the child was also identified as a risk factor Kheirabadi et al.
The studies give inconsistent findings regarding an association between the mode of delivery and the development of PPD. Among women in Lebanon, vaginal delivery was associated with a higher rate of PPD whereas in the UAE, women who delivered by cesarean section expressed more negative feelings after delivery.
Zangene and colleagues reported only emergent cesarean as associated with PPD. Physical complications during delivery or difficulty breastfeeding were also associated with PPD.
Green and colleagues emphasize not meeting these religious and societal expectations could be stressful and thus increase the likelihood of women experiencing depression. Studies also identified giving birth to the first child as a risk factor for PPD as some new mothers entering new emotional and physical territory may find it difficult to prepare for the depth of change they will experience Green et al.
This could equate to a time of higher depression as they struggle to adapt to motherhood. In addition, women with a low level of socioeconomic status were found to be at greater risk Bener et al. The literature gives inconsistent findings regarding age as a risk factor. Bener and colleagues and Kheirabadi and colleagues found mothers at younger ages were at greater risk for PPD, whereas Green and colleagues and Rizk and colleagues found that older age is associated with PPD.
In a case-control study conducted by Balaha and colleagues , no differences were obtained. Similar findings were obtained regarding education level.
Two studies found higher education as a risk factor for PPD whereas three studies found lower education as a risk factor. Unemployment was frequently linked to PPD Bener et al. Although being unemployed may interfere with childcare responsibilities and put additional pressure on women, employed women were at lower risk. Kheirabadi and colleagues argued that unemployment may be related to poverty that leads to depression. Al-Hinai found work-related difficulties as a contributing factor in PPD.
Mothers-in-law appear to be important to the success of the marital relationship in these test groups, as sons remain closely tied to their family of origin, often continuing to live with and even work within the family business their entire lives. Yount and Smith argued that the maintenance of ties with especially female natal kin will be associated with lower risks of PPD in new mothers. These are interrelated sets of factors that could be found in studies of women from other parts of the world.
Such variation in numbers may be the actual prevalence or it could be a result of methodological limitations of the studies. For example, Additionally, many women may not report any symptoms of PPD as a result of the collectivistic nature of the Middle Eastern society where personal problems are overlooked in the interest of the larger family. For patients scoring 10 or more on EPDS, further professional referrals may be indicated.
The inconsistencies of risk factors may also imply a complex interaction of multiple factors giving rise to PPD and suggest the presence of mediating factors that need further investigation through qualitative research. Validation of EPDS is necessary to obtain more accurate scores and qualitative studies would capture the essence of cultural factors not included in standard assessment tools.
Some Middle Eastern women practice a variety of postpartum rituals including the period of 40 days resting, restricted activities, and diets. During this day period, someone comes to the house or stays with the new mother to take care of the baby, the house, and the other children Kim-Godwin, This is a religious tradition followed by Muslims all over the world. In some Middle Eastern traditions, women during their postpartum period are fed chicken for protein intake and fenugreek tea with molasses to help with lactation and help replace iron resulting from blood loss during birth.
Wrapping cloth around the waist is common and believed to shrink the stomach faster. Cold foods are avoided as it may prolong labor or delivery and hot drinks and soup considered healthy for the baby. The understanding of traditional postpartum practices would help to implement culturally competent perinatal services. Jarrah and Bond indicate that although women in the Middle East generally have access to modern health care, many continue to rely on family members for PPD education and this may cause confusion and interpersonal conflicts.
Most families in Arab cultures still preserve their traditions and pregnancy and childbirth are celebrated. Denial by many women of PPD as a psychological illness and attributing it to supernatural forces like Jinn or the evil eye is possible and also the ongoing wars in the Middle East may be a contributing factor in psychological health of women including PPD.
Research on PPD in the target population is meager to begin with and even smaller on cultural, economic, and political issues affecting PPD. Implications for prevention and treatment Research findings suggest that PPD is a serious mood disorder that is historically neglected in the Middle East and leaves mothers to suffer in fear, confusion, and silence Mohamed et al.
While reasons for neglect of PPD is not researched, one could only surmise that such practices could be a result of lack of scientific knowledge or misunderstandings and the society being so collectivistic that people simply rely on extended family members even for matters including health issues. The first stage of prevention should start with screening all mothers and especially those who present with potential risk for PPD. Antenatal screening programs to identify women at risk for psychiatric disorders, including PPD, are recommended by Bener and colleagues and Mohamed and colleagues Women should be followed up with during the postnatal period, especially if they have a history of depression or depressive symptoms during pregnancy.
A major study of 40, perinatal women in Australia strongly recommends screening procedures for depression, but most importantly, culturally relevant diagnostic practices for members of ethnic minorities are recommended Buist et al. While this approach is common in the West, it is severely lacking in Middle Eastern countries, perhaps due to the notion that they already know what to do and perhaps due to their refusal to compromise their traditional practices.
Treatment of PPD should also be multifactorial, including consideration of psychosocial as well as pharmacological options. Studies recommend that new mothers should be encouraged to express their feelings and let go of their guilt that may be associated with the symptomology of PPD Bener et al.
Other effective treatments indicated in the literature are group psychotherapy Clark et al. Since breastfeeding is practiced commonly among Middle-Eastern women, pharmacotherapy should be carefully evaluated as it poses a risk of transmitting medication to the infant through breast milk, which could result in harmful exposures.
Risk-benefit assessment of prescription medication should be made in consultation with medical and mental health experts. It is important that the obstetricians and mental health team work in collaboration for maximum patient benefit.
In a study by Nahas and Amasheh , Jordanian women defined postpartum care in terms of strong family support and kinship, and preservation of childbearing customs as expressed in the celebration of the birth of the baby.
These rituals were found to be of supportive value and helped to facilitate transition to motherhood Dennis et al. Doucet and Letourneau outline that religious faith and coping can contribute to a decrease in low self-esteem and suicidal ideations that may be present in women diagnosed with PPD. Koenig found that religious beliefs and practices could represent powerful sources of comfort, hope, and meaning. Religious rituals and practices are quite common in the Arab world but empirical studies in the context of PPD are nonexistent.