Notes from the Underground. Part I. Underground*. *The author of the diary and the diary itself are, of course, imaginary. Nevertheless it is clear that such. Free kindle book and epub digitized and proofread by Project Gutenberg. NOTES FROM. UNDERGROUND. FYODOR DOSTOEVSKY. Translated from the Russian by Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonsky with an Introduction by.

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Notes from Underground (Webster's German Thesaurus Edition). Read more Notes from Underground & The Double (Penguin Classics). Read more. Translators' Note ix. Notes from Underground. 1. Part One. 3. Part Two. Note on the Text. Notes. Extra Material. Fyodor Dostoevsky's Life. Dostoevsky: Notes From Underground—2 shameful accursed sweetness, and at last -- into positive real enjoyment! Yes, into enjoyment, into enjoyment! I insist.

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This retreat always brings him shame, but he cannot avoid it. Men of action will gladly stop when faced with impossibility caused by the laws of nature; this impossibility consoles them.

The Underground Man, on the other hand, claims that he hates the laws of nature. Since these laws determine every action, there is never anyone to blame for anything. The narrator uses the example of a toothache to explain why he hates the laws of nature. Like the laws of nature, a toothache is something that causes us pain but that we have no control over. The only response to this powerlessness is spite. If we listen to the moans of a cultured man with a toothache, we will realize that he is moaning only out of spite, to annoy himself and others.

The consciousness of one's powerlessness against the laws of nature is humiliating, so no one with consciousness can ever respect himself. Human being with consciousness can only act by deceiving themselves. Men of action can act because they think they have reasons for acting. Anyone with consciousness, however, can see that there are never good reasons for acting. For example, one may try to seek revenge out of a sense of justice, but when one thinks about justice, one sees that there is really no such thing.

The laws of nature are responsible for everything. People with consciousness can act only by deceiving themselves into thinking they have reason to act, but later they will hate themselves for this deception. People with consciousness, then, can never do anything, so they are overtaken by inertia and get very bored. The Underground Man wishes that he did nothing not because of consciousness but simply out of laziness. He would love to be a sluggard, or a glutton who sat around drinking to everything "beautiful and sublime.

The Underground Man criticizes the idealists who claim that human beings only do bad things because they don't realize that it is always in their best interests to do the Good. If human beings were enlightened as to their best interests and they used their reason, they would always do good.

The Underground Man claims that throughout history, human beings have consistently done things that were obviously not in their best interests. There must be some other interest that is even more advantageous than peace and prosperity.

He goes on to say that utopian theories are just logical exercises with no grounding in reality. The utopians argue that science will show that human beings are nothing more than piano keys under the control of the laws of nature and will teach them to act according to those laws. Once everyone is enlightened and utopia is attained, the crystal palace can be built.

The Underground Man responds that such a world would be very rational and boring and someone would certainly destroy it despite all its advantages. What human beings need is not rational desire, but their own desire. Utopian theories ignore the human need to make independent decisions, based on nothing more than one's own whims and free will. The utopians might reply that science will show that free will does not exist. Eventually science will help explain the reasons for every action one makes, so that people will only act according to mathematical tables of actions.

The Underground Man argues that human beings will never agree to act according to tables and that they will destroy this utopia. Even if every action could be accounted for by reason, human beings would go insane just to escape their reason. The Underground Man agrees that human beings are looking for the utopia, but this is only because they love to create.

He says, however, that human beings are equally fond of destruction because they do not want to inhabit the structures that they build. Life consists of creating, striving, and searching. Once one reaches the end of this process and there is nothing left to do, this is no longer life but death. Thus, while human beings always search for something greater, they are afraid to actually find it. The Underground Man then questions the utopian claim that well-being is always to one's best advantage, suggesting instead that suffering is the cause of consciousness and that human beings will never renounce it.

The narrator explains that he opposes the utopian crystal palace because it satisfies only material needs. That in itself, however, does not make it desirable. For now, he prefers to keep the underground, since there at least he can have consciousness and make his own decisions. He is, however, not satisfied with the underground and is looking for a greater ideal.

The crystal palace fails because it does not satisfy spiritual needs. It addresses only reason, which is a small part of human existence. Other needs must be satisfied, and the Underground Man will not accept any ideal that does not succeed in satisfying them.

The Underground Man concludes Part I by explaining that he does not write his notes for anyone to read them. Someone writing an autobiography for an audience will always lie in it. He, on the other hand, wants to be completely sincere, so he will never let anyone read what he has written. He is not sure why he has the urge to write it all down, but it may be because what he has to say looks more dignified on paper. To lead in to Part II, the Underground Man says that it has been snowing for a long time and this reminds him of an episode in his life that he now wants to write about.

Here the Underground Man describes his interactions with other people. The Underground Man recalls his youth when he was working in an office. He hated his coworkers and thought that they were repulsive. Though he felt superior to them, he also felt that he was unlike anyone else and that others hated him.

He hated his face, though he wanted it to be intelligent. Sometimes he would think that his anti-social nature was artificial and would attempt to befriend his coworkers, but this always ended quickly. Here the Underground Man digresses to talk about the Russian romantics and attack them for having ideals that they never actually act on. He says that these romantics are the most idealistic people, but they are also the most practical.

The Underground Man, completely alone, found himself bored. He read a lot, but this got boring and he went out to taverns trying to get into trouble. One time went into a tavern hoping to get into a fight.

They do not have the feelings of hatred towards Czar but they have the strong sense of revulsion towards the bureaucracy for their inhuman behavior. Similarly, Russian society of 19th century was highly patriarchal. Due to the growth in population, sharp inequalities and exploitative policies, the landlords became more and more exploitative and brute towards the peasantry. They were addict to alcohol and indulged in petty crimes.

Russia came across many political and cultural movements during this time. These movements played a significant role in transforming Russian society into communism. The economy of Russia collapsed in the last half of the 19th century.

Notes from Underground – Dostoevsky the philosopher presents himself | Recollecting Philosophy

Agriculture was also technically underdeveloped at the same time, population of Russia doubled during to In peasantary, women were doubly at a disadvantage edge. They were treated like commodity and slaves. In this context, Dostoevsky became more and more popular among the readers and received numerous letters.

He was invited by many rich persons. He was primarily concerned with the terrible aspects of human existence. He wrote 11 novels, three novellas, 17 short novels and numerous other works.

He writes Short Stories collections and novelettes like "Mr. The summaries of the well known works are given below. The protagonist in Crime and Punishment is Raskolnikov who is a former student, a year-old man living in a small rented room at Saint Petersburg.

The setting of the novel is mid- nineties Petersburg. In the desperate need for money, he makes a plan to murder and rob Alyona Ivanovna who is an old lady and money lender. He enters into her house and murders her and her sister with an axe and steal some money.

He runs away from the scene and nobody suspects him for the murder. His guilty conscious rises and he falls into a feverish state. He gives all the money to Marmeladov and his daughter Sonya, who has been forced to become a prostitute to support her family. Meanwhile, Raskolnikov's mother and his sister, Avdotya Romanovna or Dunya have reached the city. She went to meet Pyotr Petrovich Luzhin for seeking help.

He provides the proposal for marriage and Dunya accepts it. On the other hand Raskolnikov does not agree to this marriage proposal. Dunya gets married with Razumikhin who is the friend of Raskolnikov. At the same time, Raskolnikov falls in love with Sonya. Sonya urges him to confess his crime in order to relieve guilty consciousness. He is sentenced to eight years imprisonment in Siberia.

But after some time he is released from the prison. Dostoyevsky's represents the miserable plight of the poor people in city Petersburg. The Idiot is a well known fictional work of Dostoevsky. In the beginning, it was published in in a journal The Russian Messenger. The protagonist of the novel is an intelligent young man Prince Lyov Nikolaevich Myshkin.

He is coming to Russia by a train after spending four years in a Swiss clinic. He meets a young man Parfyon Semyonovich Rogozhin who belongs to a merchant class. Rogozhin gets a lot of wealth after the death of his father.

He is a wealthy and respected man in his mid fifties. While waiting for them, Myshkin starts conversation with a servant. He considers him equal and treats him nicely. Yepanchina has three daughters, Alexandra, Adelaida, and Aglaya, the youngest is the most beautiful and intelligent. She was once the mistress of Totsky who is an aristocrat. Totsky is ready to give 75, rubles to Ganya if he marries Nastassya Filippovna. Ganya and the General openly discuss the subject of the proposed marriage in front of Myshkin.

Rogozhin proposes a sum of hundred thousand rubles to Nastassya Filippovna if she will be ready to marry him instead of Ganya. Nastassya Filippovna rejected Ganya's proposal at the same time Myshkin also shows interest in her and offers to marry Nastassya Filippovna.

She was surprised by his proposal. Rogozhin attempts to stab Myshkin but he remains unhurt because of his epileptic fit. After some time, he realizes that he is in love with Aglaya but she does not accept his proposal.

Again, he turns towards Nastasya but at the last moment she changes her mind and run away with Rogozhin because he is primitive and lacks sophisticated manners. His inclination towards love, faith and sensitivity deemed to fail in the end.

The hero of the novel Prince Myshkin is honest, generous and innocent and regarded as an idiot. Nikolay Stavrogin is a central character in the novel who is fascinated by the intellectual of that time.

The novel is a critique on the idea of socialism. It represents the multiple perspective of human evil. It depicts the destruction and chaos by the agitators. A young student of Moscow was murdered by the fellow revolutionaries.

His influence on the other characters like liberal intellectual Stepan Verkhovensky, his revolutionary son Pyotr and other radicals can be seen.

Dostoevsky, Fyodor - Notes from the Underground

Stavrogin looses faith in god and hangs himself in the end of the novel. The Brothers Karamazov is another significant novel by Dostoyevsky. It was also published in the journal The Russian Messenger in The author died soon after the publication of this novel.

It is set in Russia of 19th century. The novel is a critique on morality, faith, doubt, judgement, and reason. The plot of the novel is centered on the theme of patricide. Dmitri Fyodorovich Karamazov is the eldest son of Fyodor Karamazov. He is the only child from his first marriage. Dmitri is a sensualist like his father and spends large sum of money on wine, champagne and women.

Dmitri is married to Katerina Ivanovna, but soon after falls in love with Grushenka. Alyosha and Ivan are the other sons of Fyodor Karamazov. They search for faith, morality and reason. Legend of the Grand Inquisitor is depicted in the novel. The universal harmony can be attained through heart and not by the mind. Dostoevsky represents the psychological and spiritual love hate relations among the characters. His health declined when he was completing his Diary. By writing it, he is attempting to initiate a new literary genre.

It contains multiple subjects matter like autobiographical essays, journalistic writing, literary criticism and crimes. It was immensely popular and well appreciated by the literary world. Fyodor Dostoevsky. Infobase Publishing, Dostoevsky, Fyodor. The Brothers Karamazov. New York: The New American Library, Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonsky.

Vintage Classics. Crime and Punishment. Wordsworth, Lynch, Michael. A Charter of Freedom or an Act of Betrayal? Notes From Underground is more relevant in 21th century when human beings are dangerously and completely trapped by market and media. On the other side, the problems of unemployment, sharp economic inequalities, intolerance and fundamentalism are rising day by day. Life today has become alarmingly insecure.

Large scale manufacturing of nuclear weapons and greed of power hungry politician have touched new heights in present scenario. The world has broken up in fragments and a common person has become a rootless, lonely and alien to society. The situation has become more complex and intricate in present scenario. Notes From Underground inspires us to understand the current discourse and find out solution.

Existentialism is a vague and scholastic philosophy that represents mumbo Jumbo, Insecurity, culture decline, alienation, industrial revolution and race for armament. Existentialists strongly emphasize on the philosophy of hope amidst the encircling gloom.

It is a philosophy that emphasizes individual existence, freedom and choice. It is a fact that human life is in no way complete and fully satisfying but it has meaning. Existentialism is the search and journey for true self and true personal meaning in life.

In the beginning of 20th century, it was propagated by Heidegger, Simone de Beauvoir, Albert Camus and Kafka from the atheistic point of view. Existential scholars argue that existence precedes essence.

They challenge and negate preconceived beliefs and life is incapable of being described in its essential nature. The previous philosophers used to explain life in this manner.

Jean-Paul Sartre provides new vistas to existentialism through his novels, plays and philosophical writings. Most of the existentialists surrender in despair but some writers like Dostoevsky have courage to resist. It portrays underground man who is unable to fit into society. His free will is supreme for him. Existentialism is the philosophy of understanding the condition and existence of human beings, their place and function in the world. Dostoevsky represents pain as a product of society and does not write directly about the necessity of change in political and economic structures.

He does not polemically state why the society is bad in Notes From Underground. He attempts to find psychological solutions of deep rooted crisis. The novel indicates that individual is above the society. He does not depict that economics is the root cause of the evils prevalent in society. Underground man is so much engrossed in pain that he does not see the dream of better healthy society.

He believes in the completeness of society in its own way.

According to him life is more than logical reasoning. What is to be Done? It is written by Nikolai Chernyshevsky who is a literary writer, philosopher, polemicist, radical revolutionary, political critic and prisoner. Czar Nicholas was disliked by the majority of the population of Russia.

His death in was considered as a matter of relief and his successor the new Tsar, Alexander II brought some relief reforms, culminating in the emancipation of the peasants in But these reforms were not enough for the betterment of the peasants, that is why, majority of the people were not fully satisfied.

The corruption prevalent in the regime of Tsar made the intelligentsia and middle class people restless. These feelings paved the way to revolution in Russian society. The establishment of railways, media and education played a significant role in uniting the Russian society.

Many contemporary writers represented the inequality, injustice and exploitation in the regime of Tsar. She is living with her self- righteous mother, who wants to marry her as soon as possible. Vera is an ambitious girl who wants to live her life on her own terms. She was strongly inclined to be an economically independent woman and she dared to challenge the institution of marriage and family.

She comes into the contact with Lopukhov who is a medical student. In order to save herself, she marries him. She enjoys the freedom in the house which is built by both of them. Meanwhile, she starts a sewing union with help of other ladies.

She collects some girls and educates them. Lopukhov does not object to her relationship and Rakhmetov guides him in this regard. Rakhmetov is portrayed as an ideal revolutionary who is strictly committed to the process of revolution. Vera and Kirsanov marry and live happily after that. This novel is well received and appreciated by Plekhanov and Lenin.

The historical context of growing radicalism in s is reflected in this novel. It's so easy to note the polemic tone but so hard to answer those inevitable questions asking who or what the narrator is screaming at…. It is a highly didactic and naively optimistic and offers simplistic solutions to complex social and human problems. The protagonist of his novel, Vera Pavlona, is a liberated, modern and independent superwoman. She works for the betterment of other women in the society by educating them and making them aware about the subjugation and exploitation.

Dostoevsky strongly reacted on such simplistic responses towards the problematic of life. He gave proper artistic answer to Chernyshevsky by writing this text.

Dostoevsky was writing the text in the second half of Eighteenth century. It was a time when a rapid transformation was occurring in social, economical and cultural life of Russia. The writers and intellectuals of that time were looking for the solutions seriously.

Dostoevsky strongly disagreed with this highly logical positive approach. Underground man does not accept the goodness or creativity of human being. Although, he is self centered but he is honest and does not accept bribes at any cost. By self destruction, he proves the irrationality of human beings. The society governed by reason creates separation between individuality and surrounding. Reason takes one away from individuality. For when desire merges with reason, then we reason instead of desiring" Oh earth!

Oh sun! Oh delight! Dostoevsky considers them romantic views about human beings. He points out that life is meaningless but human beings try to find meaning in it.

Man loves creating and the making of roads, that is indisputable. To Dostoevsky, the happiness is a matter of conviction. A self conscious human being can be happy when he rejects the happiness. A human being is highly individual, he can be happy when he works individually.

But he was not anti women, he wrote to V. According to Chernyshevsky, the society will change when the social and economic conditions will get better but Dostoevsky strictly opposes this model of social engineering and names it as a vulgar scientism and determinism.

College Literature 5. Meshchervsky, V. Peter Sekirin. Jefferson, N. Print Straus, Nina Pelikan. Dostoevsky and the Woman Question: Rereadings at the End of a Century. Martin's Press, Chernyshevsky, Nikolay Gavrilovich. What Is to Be Done? Ann Arbor: Ardis, Guerard, Albert J. The Triumph of the Novel: Dickens, Dostoevsky, Faulkner. Oxford University Press, Northwestern University Press, Existentialism gives emphasis on human existence.

Reason can be the small part of human personality. She is living with her self-righteous mother, who wants to marry her as soon as possible. After some time, she comes into contact with a friend and classmate of Lopukhov, Kirsanov and falls in love with him.

Dostoevsky believes that the human is the social construct of its surroundings, the protagonist is a child of his time who is strictly against the rational egoism. He gives answer by writing this text to the mechanized and logical structure of society. However, the novel is set in the later part of 19th century and it depicts the disoriented world in many ways.

But in 21st century the situation has become even more complicated. The individual finds himself like a stranger and faces uncomfortable familiarity. The miseries suffered by the intellectual underground man in 19th century, foreground more vehemently and are more relevant in 21th century. The Underground Man: The protagonist is a first-person narrator underground man and an unnamed year-old civil servant.

He has quit his service and spending his time in a basement flat. It is situated outside Saint Petersburg. He vengefully ridicules the modern world. Like his novel Same Face, Notes from the Underground is also the story of an underground person.

His hero or antihero is a highly conscious person. He feels bad when people ignore and insult him. He ran away and hid himself whenever he is insulted or loose. He takes revenge of his insult from the people who are weaker than him.

He is the first Russian writer to experiment in this field. The underground wants to foreground his individuality and he wants to live with his free will but his individuality and free will is not accepted by the society.

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In the chapter second or third chapter of second Unit, he represents the dreadful and hateful incidents, characters, and places of his former days of his job and his experiences in a Military school, that are extremely sad and terrible. He takes revenge from the poor and weak prostitute Liza. Liza is the real heroine of the text. The Underground man tries to find his individuality in his own sufferings.

The protagonist is completely lonely and in dire need of some company. He is waiting for his old schoolmates. When he opened the window to watch them he finds that there is dense darkness and it was awfully cold. Therefore, his hope of reunion with them goes in vain. The underground man is deeply anguished human being. He is badly shattered in the contradiction of worldly truth and reality. The protagonist in the text is the anonymous narrator and he is known as the irrational underground man.

The underground man is not a hateful creature. I am a wicked man. An unattractive man. I think my liver hurts. However, I don't know a fig about my sickness, and am not sure what it is that hurts me. I am not being treated and never have been, though I respect medicine and doctors. The main motif of the writer is to depict the hellish atmosphere of the time in which the protagonist is living. He wants the liberty of the human spirit.

The text is autobiographical like the autobiographical works of Augustine, Pascal, and Rousseau. The underground man strongly believes that conformity with the establishment is like the non existence of personality or individuality. To be antiestablishment is a gesture to come out of the inertia of a normal human being. Better conscious inertia! And so, long live the underground! Though I did say that I envy the normal man to the point of uttermost bile, still I do not want to be him on those conditions in which I see him though, all the same, I shall not stop envying him.

No, no, the underground is in any case more profitable! There one can at least… Eh! Devil take the underground! The underground man does not want to lose his human essence at any cost. He has a strong disliking for the people surrounding him. His head of the department Anton Antonitch Syetotchkin is a miser and he never gives money to anyone.

To borrow from Anton Antonitch seemed to me monstrous and shameful. I did not sleep for two or three nights. Indeed, I did not sleep well at that time, I was in a fever; I had a vague sinking at my heart or else a sudden throbbing, throbbing, throbbing! Drove me out of all patience! He was my thorn, a scourge visited upon me by Providence.

Notes from the Underground by Fyodor Dostoyevsky

He and I had been in constant altercation for several years on end, and I hated him. My God, how I hated him! He does not like the idiotic behavior of Zverkov. Similarly, he treats Simonov. On learning that there was money inside, Apollon became more respectful and agreed to go…. At the same time all the fellows throw him into exclusion as he does not want to shun his intelligence. They also hate him very much: My school fellows met me with spiteful and merciless derision, because I was not like any of them.

I immediately began to hate them, and shut myself away from everyone in timorous, wounded, and inordinate pride. Their crudeness outraged me.

They laughed cynically at my face, my ungainly figure; and yet how stupid their own faces were! In our school facial expressions degenerated and would become somehow especially stupid. So many beautiful children came to us. A few years later it was disgusting even to look at them. Already at the age of sixteen I gloomily marveled at them; even then I was amazed at the pettiness of their thinking, the stupidity of their pastimes, games, conversations.

They had so little understanding of the most essential things, so little interest in the most impressive, startling subjects, that I began, willy-nilly, to regard them as beneath me.

It was not injured vanity that prompted me to do so, and for God's sake don't come creeping at me with those banal objections that one is sick of to the point of nausea - "that I was only dreaming, while they already understood real life.

On the contrary, they took the most obvious, glaring reality in a fantastically stupid way, and were already accustomed to worshiping success alone. Everything that was just, but humiliated and downtrodden, they laughed at disgracefully and hardheartedly. They regarded rank as intelligence; at the age of sixteen they were already talking about cushy billets. Of course, much of this came from stupidity, from the bad examples that had ceaselessly surrounded their childhood and adolescence.

They were depraved to the point of monstrosity. He has to suffer and comes across topsy-turvy situation in search of meaning of life.

He is free to fulfill his natural desires and he takes pleasure in whatever he does or wants to do. He can sleep as long as he wants. But at the same time, he does not accept the establish authority.

Conformity with authority is like a kind of slavery to him. He has to decide whether he can become an antiestablishment or a rebel against the state or he can establish conformity with that state.

First idea is full with suffering, self destruction second idea leads towards the life in peace. But he follows first option and does not care about any damn authority. He does not allow them to curtail his freedom. And now I am living out my life in my corner, taunting myself with the spiteful and utterly futile consolation that it is even impossible for an intelligent man seriously to become anything, and only fools become something.

But in real sense he is a hero who continuously protects his freedom. He considers his plight better than others fellows who dare not challenge the authority. His gestures are the symbol of the dynamism and dignity of life. He will even risk his gingerbread, and wish on purpose for the most pernicious nonsense, the most noneconomical meaninglessness, solely in order to mix into all this positive good sense his own pernicious, fantastical element. To resist materialism and scientific logic means to acknowledge that we are living in a world where freedom is supreme.

Noncooperation with authority means defying radicalism. He was not only rejecting nihilism but also depicting complete human nature.

He was depicting the overall impression of the rationalism on the contemporary Russian society. The Underground man is one of the representatives of the contemporary generation.

He is in search for his own individuality and his quest for himself. The underground man is a member of the intelligentsia but he is not able to digest the conclusions and determinism of reason, rationalism and logic. The ambiguity of the underground man is conspicuous: I did not believe that such things happened to others, and therefore kept it to myself all my life as a secret.

Yes, a pleasure, a pleasure! I will not take a tenement house, with apartments for the poor, and a thousand-year lease, and the dentist Wagenheim's shingle for good measure, as the crown of my desires. In the later part of Notes from Underground, he lampoons the romanticism of socialist sentiment.

The underground man is a learned person full with bookish ideas. He is influenced by the romantic ideas of European and Russian socialism. I wished to stifle with external sensations all that was ceaselessly boiling up inside me. And among external sensations the only one possible for me was reading. Reading was, of course, a great help. The underground man came across Liza but he does not behave properly with her.

The underground man is not able to understand the reason behind his plight. The underground man is a petty clerk but an intellectual of its own kind who is completely dissatisfied with oppressive atmosphere created by reason, technology, and bureaucracy. He resists but sinks deep into isolation and negativity. He is one of the most memorable characters in 19th century literature. He suffered a lot by others. Reader gets educative experience in reading the text.

The underground man seems unfamiliar and strange in the beginning but the reader finds some kind of similarity with him. The influence of the style of Dostoevsky can be seen in the contemporary fiction. He does not want to remind his tormented school days when he meets his school friend Simonov. Curses on that school …. When he comes to know that his school fellows are arranging dinner party, he wish to be the part of the party.

But he is not in a condition to pay contributory money for it. In the dinner, he feels that he is being ignored and ridiculed by the class mates. All the school fellows consume lot of alcohol. He delivered a passionate speech to show his anger and shame. In the end, he seeks Simonov help to pay the money for the dinner. He feels lonely when his school friends leave the place. He wishes apology from his friends. He wants to weep and talk to himself.

He writes a letter to Simonov on the next day of the party blaming him for the ill treatment in during the dinner. He sent the money for the party which is paid by Simonov. Bakhtin rightly observes that the underground man is a complex character with polyphonic voices.

The characters of Dostoevsky do not merely follow the command of the writer rather they have their own individuality. The underground man is at same time angry and feels lonely. Mirsky points out in A History of Russian Literature: From Its Beginnings to that Notes from the Underground is literature as well as philosophy.

It is difficult to comprehend the paradoxical and unexpected behavior of underground man. The underground man is self- absorbed, irrelevant, malicious, and cruel in spite of the fact that he is a part and parcel of every human being. He represents the mental and psychological picture of human beings. He shakes the reader from deep slumber for the betterment. The well known scholar Hesse was well familiar with many writers but Dostoevsky was much liked by him. Hesse points out that Notes from Underground depicts the cruel, bloody harshness and ambiguity of all human existence.

One has to be ready with sorrow and despair to experience the beauty. The Underground Man is considered as self-centred, obsessive, oversensitive, manipulative, and spiteful but he is in search of something more.

He is not merely a repulsive creature. The Underground Man is identified with us. He is a stranger and at the same time one wishes to consider him as a fellow, frail, learning human being.

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