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THE PHILOSOPHY. OF LIFE. SWAMI KRISHNANANDA. The Divine Life Society. Sivananda Ashram, Rishikesh, India. Website: osakeya.info The Philosophy of Life - A critical exposition of the fundamental principles in Eastern and Western philosophy in the light of the doctrines PDF Email this page. In past deep thinking on any subject was considered as philosophy and thinker was called philosopher. Even today researcher on any subject is honored with.

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Philosophy Of Life Pdf

The Review of Life Studies Vol.8 (October ) Philosophy of Life in Contemporary Society. Masahiro Morioka*. 1. Introduction. Academic bioethics and. Journal of Philosophy of Life Vol.5, No.1 (July ) [Essay]. Philosophy for Everyday Life. Finn Janning. *. Abstract. The aim of this essay is two-sided. This book rekindles the spirit of the Stoic philosophical tradition, now It is about the value of your own life, and you can put philosophy to work.

Essays — Montaigne Montaigne was a French Rennaisance philosopher noted for his merging of casual anecdotes with intellectual insight. His influence as a philosopher was wide, and has includes many of his contemporaries, many of them appearing also on this list. He breaks down the paradoxes of conventional understandings of morality, and in doing so sets the stage for much of the 20th century thought that would follow. Written in the style of a journal of a six day course of meditation, he first discards all belief in things that are not absolutely certain, and then tries to establish what can be known for sure. One of the most influential philosophical texts ever written, it is widely read to this day. Machiavelli emphasized the need for realism, as opposed to idealism. It begins with a meditation on suicide; the question of living or not living in a universe devoid of order or meaning. Depressing at first, like a lot of existential writing it has light at the end of the tunnel. He ultimately argues the irrationality of human beings. It teaches peace, harmony and balance; ultimately describing a complete and fulfilling art of living that guides millions to this day.

But does a person wondering what makes the leaf of a plant green necessarily make him a philosopher? As he explicitly pointed out in his opus, Apology, this criterion at once rules out almost every type of what is ordinarily called wisdom. Plato called such a test of critical discussion Dialectics, which according to him, is exclusive to Philosophy Ibid. Plato claimed that Philosophy proceeds by criticizing received opinions and deriving at the end a refined opinion worthy of belief i.

Pedro: Man walks using only two legs — thus, man is a biped animal Thesis Juan: But Chickens are also biped animals; does it mean that human beings are chickens?

The Meaning of Life

Antithesis Pedro: They are both animals, yes. But definitely humans are not chickens, these two are not the same. Humans possess something that makes them different from other biped animals like chickens. Juan: And what is that something that makes Man different?

Pedro: Unlike chicken, Man thinks. Juan: So how do you define Man now? The short dialogue above shows how the received opinion is being criticized and how a refined opinion is derived in considering the criticism. However, if Philosophy is an activity which sought a "wisdom" that can face the test of critical discussions, what, then, is the difference of Philosophy with other forms of study that emphasize critical discussions?

For instance, Science also puts its ideas under critical tests and discussions. Is Science, then, Philosophy? The Collective Name for Unanswered Questions William James defined Philosophy as the collective name for questions that have not been answered to the satisfaction of all that have asked them The Encyclopedia of Philosophy, According to James, if man finds an answer to Philosophical questions, it would result into a Science for instance, when man answered the question posed by Aristotle Why everything that goes up, goes down, man has invented a Science called Physics.

This, however, is not all. James made a very interesting addendum - Philosophy, by trying to answer its own questions thereby giving life to other branches of Human Knowledge , slowly digs its own grave. If all unanswered questions are finally answered — Philosophy ceases to exist. Philosophy unanswered questions clearly depletes by answering its very own existence!

Philosophers does not only ask questions that could lead to the creation of special science if answered, but it also ask the relationship of these Sciences to Human Society for instance industrialization and the issues of deforestation, and pollution, etc.

He believes that the goal of Philosophy is to construct a strictly scientific language that perspicuously represents the structure of the world as a whole, and that all meaningful assertions in a description of reality must be derived from basic statements of experience. Carnap's influential articles "Pseudo-Problems in Philosophy" and "The Elimination of Metaphysics trough Logical Analysis of Language" propose that many traditional philosophical disputes amount to little more than differences in poetic rhetoric Ibid.

And so, the activity of Philosophy, by focusing on the proper use of language, could untie itself from metaphysical entanglements and thus transforms itself into a more useful endeavor. This view is generally known as Logical Positivism. Logical positivists, like Carnap, believe that there are only two meaningful statements: 1. But is it an analytic statement? Is it an empirical statement?

The Meaning of Life (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

If you happen to read a book written by a well-known Philosopher, you will surely encounter his own definition of what Philosophy is — and his definition is as good as the definitions of other Philosophers who have also written their own books about this subject.

But why conclusively define Philosophy? Philosophy is meant to be experienced. And defining it with precision is something that is never required before one may experience Philosophy. All we need to do, then, in order for us to understand the nature and meaning of Philosophy is to experience it, that is, by living and doing Philosophy.

But how could we do and live Philosophy? Kolak and Martin , p. Philosophy is an axe. Everything you believed is questionable. How deeply have you questioned it? The uncritical acceptance of beliefs handed down by parents, teachers, politicians, and religious leaders is dangerous. Many of these beliefs are simply false. Some of them are lies designed to control you.

Even what has been handed down is true, is it nit your truth. Beliefs can be handed down. Knowledge can perhaps be handed down.

Wisdom can never be handed down. The goal of philosophy is wisdom. Trying to hand down philosophy is unphilosophical. Wisdom requires questioning what is questionable.

Since everything is questionable, wisdom requires questioning everything. That is what philosophy is. One does not simply study it - one does it. It is in this context that Philosophy is both sublime and nitpicking. As an activity, Philosophy promotes the practice of conceptual analysis or thinking about thinking. Ability to Wonder — The predisposition of the mind to wonder and to be curious about everything, from the peculiar to the very ordinary.

Sense of Autonomy — The quality of the mind to be independent, or the freedom of the will from external control and influence. For instance, a person with a sense of autonomy would not blindly believe what authorities claim to be the Truth or would not simply follow instructions uncritically.

Unfortunately, these qualities are something that this book cannot provide you nor any other Philosophy book for that matter because you alone can inspire yourself to cultivate your gift of rationality and your natural sense of wonder.

You alone can inspire yourself to exercise your sense of autonomy and objectivity. This book could only offer information you might even call it generalized knowledge. But remember, nothing in the world but ourselves, can decide when to start asking the questions that really matter in our lives, and we alone can determine when to start searching for the answers Soccio, That makes philosophy not as a simple activity which we could easily ignore.

Philosophy, as a study, is usually divided into broad subfields which include the following: 1. The History of Philosophy - studies major philosophers like Socrates and Confucius, etc. As such, the history of philosophy not only provides insight into the other sub fields of philosophy; it also reveals many of the foundations of Western and Eastern Civilizations. Logic — deals with methods for distinguishing good from bad reasoning.

Usually, the study of logic will be one of your experiences of philosophy after General Philosophy and Moral philosophy courses. You will certainly encounter Logic before you leave your General Education curriculum subjects for your major courses and thus, consider Chapter 6 as your introduction to that course.

Ethics takes up the meanings of our moral concepts—such as right action, obligation and justice—and formulates principles to guide moral decisions, whether in private or public life. What are our moral obligations to others? How can moral disagreements be rationally settled? What rights must a just society accord its citizens?

What constitutes a valid excuse for wrong-doing? We shall discuss some possible answers in Chapter 8 but we shall encounter some ethical writings on Chapter 2 — 5. Metaphysics seeks basic criteria for determining what sorts of things are real. Are there mental, physical, and abstract things such as numbers , for instance, or is there just the physical and the spiritual, or merely matter and energy? Are persons highly complex physical systems, or do they have properties not reducible to anything physical?

Chapter 2 will introduce you to the exciting world of Metaphysics, but our discussions of metaphysical systems as developed by many philosophers will span up to Chapter 4. Epistemology concerns the nature and scope of knowledge.

What does it mean to know the truth , and what is the nature of truth? What sorts of things can be known, and can we be justified in our beliefs about what goes beyond the evidence of our senses, such as the inner lives of others or events of the distant past? Is there knowledge beyond the reach of science? What are the limits of self-knowledge? Chapter 4 provides some major answers. Aesthetics is one of the oldest fields of Philosophy. It is commonly known as Philosophy of Art and it concerns the nature of art, including both the performing arts and painting, sculpture, and literature.

Major questions in aesthetics include how artistic creations are to be interpreted and evaluated, and how the arts are related to one another, to natural beauty, and to morality, religion, science, and other important elements of human life. Many branches of philosophy have grown from these traditional core areas: 1.

Philosophy of Religion. The philosophy of religion assess the various grounds people have offered to justify believing in God. It treats the relation between faith and reason, the nature of religious language, the relation of religion and morality, and the question of how a God who is wholly good could allow the existence of evil. A more synthetic view of the field will be offered on Chapter 6.

Philosophy of Science. This is probably the largest subfield generated by epistemology. Philosophy of science clarifies both the quest for scientific knowledge and the results yielded by that quest. It does this by exploring the logic of scientific evidence; and the nature of scientific laws, explanations, and theories.

Socrates and Philosophy as a Way of Life *

We shall discuss some philosophers of Science in Chapter 5. For the present purpose of this book, we shall only focus on Political and Social Philosophy. You will be introduced in Political and Social Philosophy on Chapter 9.

Philosophy of Language. The attempt to narrow down the meaning of Philosophy was a failure - the original breadth of meaning of Philosophy remained reflective of its concerns over the every facet of human existence. Although the endeavor to give Philosophy a precise definition to make it a distinct discipline has failed, it is not, however, a completely futile endeavor.

The various definitions offer insights about the nature of Philosophy as a special field of human inquiry. They reflect the diversity of Philosophical concerns: from man and his society, to his science, politics, economics and even his Religion. The various definitions of Philosophy, from ancient to contemporary period could be viewed as reflective of the history and evolution of Philosophy itself an issue which we will discuss in Chapter 2.

So, here are some of the widely held definitions of Philosophy Ibid. The Love of Wisdom. The love of exercising one's curiosity and intelligence Herodotus. The love of "wisdom" that can face the test of critical discussions Plato.

The collective name for questions that have not been answered to the satisfaction of all that have asked them William James 5. A Theory of Language Rudolph Carnap We will consider each of these definitions and try to discuss why they fail to grasp adequately the nature of Philosophy.

The term Philos is usually translated as Love, and Sophia is ordinarily translated to English as Wisdom. Philosophy as Philosophia is thus, commonly understood to mean " the Love of wisdom". But what exactly the kind of wisdom Philosophy is concerned with? The English word wisdom is narrowly defined as understanding what is true, right, or lasting. The modern understanding of the word is basically the Ability to apply knowledge or experience or understanding or common sense and insight — or to put it simply, the practical application of knowledge.

But Sophia, in its Greek sense, means more than these two views. It also means the desire to seek knowledge for its own sake. That is, the desire to know for the sake of knowing and not necessarily because knowing would result to anything of practical use.

It is this idea of wisdom which Greeks understood Sophia. And here lies the problem. Hence, Philosophy connotes the love of exercising one's curiosity and intelligence Ibid. To Philosophize is therefore to find pleasure in wondering about the world, the universe, or about the meaning of human existence. But does a person wondering what makes the leaf of a plant green necessarily make him a philosopher? As he explicitly pointed out in his opus, Apology, this criterion at once rules out almost every type of what is ordinarily called wisdom.

Plato called such a test of critical discussion Dialectics, which according to him, is exclusive to Philosophy Ibid. Plato claimed that Philosophy proceeds by criticizing received opinions and deriving at the end a refined opinion worthy of belief i. Pedro: Man walks using only two legs — thus, man is a biped animal Thesis Juan: But Chickens are also biped animals; does it mean that human beings are chickens?

Antithesis Pedro: They are both animals, yes.

But definitely humans are not chickens, these two are not the same. Humans possess something that makes them different from other biped animals like chickens. Juan: And what is that something that makes Man different? Pedro: Unlike chicken, Man thinks. Juan: So how do you define Man now?

The short dialogue above shows how the received opinion is being criticized and how a refined opinion is derived in considering the criticism. However, if Philosophy is an activity which sought a "wisdom" that can face the test of critical discussions, what, then, is the difference of Philosophy with other forms of study that emphasize critical discussions?

For instance, Science also puts its ideas under critical tests and discussions. Is Science, then, Philosophy? The Collective Name for Unanswered Questions William James defined Philosophy as the collective name for questions that have not been answered to the satisfaction of all that have asked them The Encyclopedia of Philosophy, According to James, if man finds an answer to Philosophical questions, it would result into a Science for instance, when man answered the question posed by Aristotle Why everything that goes up, goes down, man has invented a Science called Physics.

This, however, is not all. James made a very interesting addendum - Philosophy, by trying to answer its own questions thereby giving life to other branches of Human Knowledge , slowly digs its own grave. If all unanswered questions are finally answered — Philosophy ceases to exist. Philosophy unanswered questions clearly depletes by answering its very own existence!

Philosophers does not only ask questions that could lead to the creation of special science if answered, but it also ask the relationship of these Sciences to Human Society for instance industrialization and the issues of deforestation, and pollution, etc.

He believes that the goal of Philosophy is to construct a strictly scientific language that perspicuously represents the structure of the world as a whole, and that all meaningful assertions in a description of reality must be derived from basic statements of experience. Carnap's influential articles "Pseudo-Problems in Philosophy" and "The Elimination of Metaphysics trough Logical Analysis of Language" propose that many traditional philosophical disputes amount to little more than differences in poetic rhetoric Ibid.

And so, the activity of Philosophy, by focusing on the proper use of language, could untie itself from metaphysical entanglements and thus transforms itself into a more useful endeavor.

This view is generally known as Logical Positivism. Logical positivists, like Carnap, believe that there are only two meaningful statements: 1. But is it an analytic statement? Is it an empirical statement? If you happen to read a book written by a well-known Philosopher, you will surely encounter his own definition of what Philosophy is — and his definition is as good as the definitions of other Philosophers who have also written their own books about this subject.

But why conclusively define Philosophy? Philosophy is meant to be experienced. And defining it with precision is something that is never required before one may experience Philosophy.

All we need to do, then, in order for us to understand the nature and meaning of Philosophy is to experience it, that is, by living and doing Philosophy.

But how could we do and live Philosophy? Kolak and Martin , p. Philosophy is an axe. Everything you believed is questionable. How deeply have you questioned it? The uncritical acceptance of beliefs handed down by parents, teachers, politicians, and religious leaders is dangerous.

Many of these beliefs are simply false. Some of them are lies designed to control you. Even what has been handed down is true, is it nit your truth.

Beliefs can be handed down. Knowledge can perhaps be handed down. Wisdom can never be handed down. The goal of philosophy is wisdom. Trying to hand down philosophy is unphilosophical. Wisdom requires questioning what is questionable. Since everything is questionable, wisdom requires questioning everything.

That is what philosophy is. One does not simply study it - one does it. It is in this context that Philosophy is both sublime and nitpicking. As an activity, Philosophy promotes the practice of conceptual analysis or thinking about thinking. Ability to Wonder — The predisposition of the mind to wonder and to be curious about everything, from the peculiar to the very ordinary. Sense of Autonomy — The quality of the mind to be independent, or the freedom of the will from external control and influence.

For instance, a person with a sense of autonomy would not blindly believe what authorities claim to be the Truth or would not simply follow instructions uncritically.

Unfortunately, these qualities are something that this book cannot provide you nor any other Philosophy book for that matter because you alone can inspire yourself to cultivate your gift of rationality and your natural sense of wonder. You alone can inspire yourself to exercise your sense of autonomy and objectivity.

This book could only offer information you might even call it generalized knowledge. But remember, nothing in the world but ourselves, can decide when to start asking the questions that really matter in our lives, and we alone can determine when to start searching for the answers Soccio, That makes philosophy not as a simple activity which we could easily ignore.

Philosophy, as a study, is usually divided into broad subfields which include the following: 1. The History of Philosophy - studies major philosophers like Socrates and Confucius, etc. As such, the history of philosophy not only provides insight into the other sub fields of philosophy; it also reveals many of the foundations of Western and Eastern Civilizations. Logic — deals with methods for distinguishing good from bad reasoning.

Usually, the study of logic will be one of your experiences of philosophy after General Philosophy and Moral philosophy courses. You will certainly encounter Logic before you leave your General Education curriculum subjects for your major courses and thus, consider Chapter 6 as your introduction to that course.

Ethics takes up the meanings of our moral concepts—such as right action, obligation and justice—and formulates principles to guide moral decisions, whether in private or public life. What are our moral obligations to others? How can moral disagreements be rationally settled? What rights must a just society accord its citizens? What constitutes a valid excuse for wrong-doing?

We shall discuss some possible answers in Chapter 8 but we shall encounter some ethical writings on Chapter 2 — 5. Metaphysics seeks basic criteria for determining what sorts of things are real. Are there mental, physical, and abstract things such as numbers , for instance, or is there just the physical and the spiritual, or merely matter and energy?

Are persons highly complex physical systems, or do they have properties not reducible to anything physical?