Upanishads. The text contains the mantras in Sanskrit, their transliteration in Tamil, Upanishad, Read Online, Download PDF. Title Pages. This Upanishad contains 3 chapters. The first chapter deals with various forms of Meditation and some values. The second chapter reveals the true nature of. Page 1. THE UPANISHADS. TRANSLATED BY. SWAMI PARAMANANDA. Page 2. HARVARD. DIVININ. ASCHOOL. Angoyer-Harnard. Theological Library.
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Tamil - Short Stories From the Great Upanishads - Free download as PDF File . pdf), Text File .txt) or view presentation slides online. Pandit MR Jambunathan. தைத்திரீயோபநிஷத்: Taittiriya Upanishad (Tamil). Item Code: NZJ Cover: Paperback. Edition: Publisher: Sri Ramakrishna Math. Dear friends, I just placed my order for one Radhe-Shyam copper bangle and I am looking forward to seeing the quality of your products. I have been searching .
This text has now been put up in the website, in PDF format, for the benefit of listeners. Listeners can take print outs of the text or refer to the online version while listening to the respective Upanishads. In order to facilitate this, the sub-divisions of the text have been put up separately, as well. These are the accompanying texts for the Upanishads classes which are available in the Poornalayam website. A Upanishad classes. Identifier UpanishadsTamil. Identifier-ark ark: Ocr language not currently OCRable.
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What it sees, that becomes. It sees itself beyond Space and Time; that becomes in the conditions of Space and Time. Creation is not a making of something out of nothing or of one thing out of another, but a self-projection of Brahman into the conditions of Space and Time.
Creation is not a making, but a becoming in terms and forms of conscious existence. In the becoming each individual is Brahman variously represented and entering into various relations with Itself in the play of the divine consciousness; in being, each individual is all Brahman.
Brahman as the Absolute or the Universal has the power of standing back from Itself in the relativity. It conceives, by a subordinate movement of consciousness, the individual as other than the universal, the relative as different from the Absolute. Without this separative movement, the individual would always tend to lose itself in the universal, the relative to disappear into the Absolute. Thus, It supports a corresponding reaction in the individual who regards himself as other than the transcendent and universal Brahman and other than the rest of the Many.
He puts identity behind him and enforces the play of Being in the separative Ego. The individual may regard himself as eternally different from the One, or as eternally one with It, yet different, or he may go back entirely in his consciousness to the pure Identity.
These three attitudes correspond to three truths of the 2 The positions, in inverse order, of the three principal philosophical schools of Vedanta, Monism, Qualied Monism and Dualism. Isha Upanishad: Analysis 25 Brahman which are simultaneously valid and none of them entirely true without the others as its complements. Their coexistence, difcult of conception to the logical intellect, can be experienced by identity in consciousness with Brahman. Even in asserting Oneness, we must remember that Brahman is beyond our mental distinctions and is a fact not of Thought that discriminates, but of Being which is absolute, innite and escapes discrimination.
Our consciousness is representative and symbolic; it cannot conceive the thing-in-itself, the Absolute, except by negation, in a sort of void, by emptying it of all that it seems in the universe to contain. But the Absolute is not a void or negation. It is all that is here in Time and beyond Time. Even oneness is a representation and exists in relation to multiplicity. Vidya and Avidya are equally eternal powers of the supreme Chit. Neither Vidya nor Avidya by itself is the absolute knowledge.
See verses 9 Still, of all relations oneness is the secret base, not multiplicity. Oneness constitutes and upholds the multiplicity, multiplicity does not constitute and uphold the oneness. Therefore we have to conceive of oneness as our self and the essential nature of Being, multiplicity as a representation of Self and a becoming.
We have to conceive of the Brahman as One Self of all and then return upon the Many as becomings of the One Being bhutani. But both the Self and the becomings are Brahman; we cannot regard the one as Brahman and the others as unreal and not Brahman. Both are real, the one with a constituent and comprehensive, the others with a derivative or dependent reality. The Gods are Brahman representing Itself in cosmic Personalities expressive of the one Godhead who, in their impersonal action, appear as the various play of the principles of Nature.
The others are sarvani bhutani of a later verse, all becomings, Brahman representing itself in the separative consciousness of the Many. Everything in the universe, even the Gods, seems to itself to be moving in the general movement towards a goal outside itself or other than its immediate idea of itself. Brahman is the goal; for it is both the beginning and the end, the cause and the result of all movement. But the idea of a nal goal in the movement of Nature itself is illusory.
For Brahman is Absolute and Innite. The Gods, labouring to reach him, nd, at every goal that they realise, Brahman still moving forward in front to a farther realisation.
Nothing in the appearances of the universe can be entirely That to the relative consciousness; all is only a symbolic representation of the Unknowable. All things are already realised in Brahman. The running of the Others in the course of Nature is only a working out Prakriti , by Causality, in Time and Space, of something that Brahman already possesses. Even in Its universal being Brahman exceeds the Movement.
Exceeding Time, It contains in Itself past, present and future simultaneously and has not to run to the end of conceivable Time. Exceeding Space, It contains all formations in Itself coincidently 3 Prakriti, executive Nature as opposed to Purusha, which is the Soul governing, taking cognizance of and enjoying the works of Prakriti. Shakti, the self-existent, self-cognitive, self-effective Power of the Lord Ishwara, Deva or Purusha , which expresses itself in the workings of Prakriti.
Maya, signifying originally in the Veda comprehensive and creative knowledge, Wisdom that is from of old; afterwards taken in its second and derivative sense, cunning, magic, Illusion. In this second signicance it can really be appropriate only to the workings of the lower Nature, apara prakrti, which has put behind it the.
Divine Wisdom and is absorbed in the experiences of the separative Ego. It is in the more ancient sense that the word Maya is used in the Upanishads, where, indeed, it occurs but rarely. Isha Upanishad: Analysis 27 and has not to run to the end of conceivable Space.
Exceeding Causality, It contains freely in Itself all eventualities as well as all potentialities without being bound by the apparent chain of causality by which they are linked in the universe. Everything is already realised by It as the Lord before it can be accomplished by the separated Personalities in the movement.
The movement is a rhythm, a harmony which That, as the Universal Life, works out by gures of Itself in the terms of conscious Being. It is a formula symbolically expressive of the Unknowable, so arranged that every level of consciousness really represents something beyond itself, depth of depth, continent of continent.
It is a play4 of the divine Consciousness existing for its own satisfaction and adding nothing to That, which is already complete. It is a fact of conscious being, justied by its own existence, with no purpose ulterior to itself. The idea of purpose, of a goal is born of the progressive self-unfolding by the world of its own true nature to the individual Souls inhabiting its forms; for the Being is gradually self-revealed within its own becomings, real Unity emerges out of the Multiplicity and changes entirely the values of the latter to our consciousness.
This self-unfolding is governed by conditions determined by the complexity of consciousness in its cosmic action. For consciousness is not simple or homogeneous, it is septuple.
That is to say, it constitutes itself into seven forms or grades of conscious activity descending from pure Being to physical being. Their interplay creates the worlds, determines all activities, constitutes all becomings. Brahman self-extended in Space and Time is the universe. In this extension Brahman represents Itself as formative Nature, the universal Mother of things, who appears to us, rst, as Matter, called Prithivi, the Earth-Principle. Brahman in Matter or physical being represents Itself as the universal Life-Power, Matarishwan, which moves there as a dynamic energy, Prana, and presides effectively over all arrangement and formation.
Universal Life establishes, involved in Matter, the septuple consciousness; and the action of Prana, the dynamic energy, on the Matrix of things evolves out of it its different forms and serves as a basis for all their evolutions. We are habitually aware of three elements in our being, Mind, Life and Body. These constitute for us a divided and mutable existence which is in a condition of unstable harmony and works by a strife of positive and negative forces between the two poles of Birth and Death.
For all life is a constant birth or be coming sambhava, sambhuti of verses 12 All birth entails a constant death or dissolution of that which becomes, in order that it may change into a new becoming.
Therefore this state of existence is called Mrityu, Death, and described as a stage which has to be passed through and transcended. Verses 11, 14 For this is not the whole of our being and, therefore, not our pure being. We have, behind, a superconscious existence which has also three constituents, Sat, Chit-Tapas and Ananda. Sat is essence of our being, pure, innite and undivided, as opposed to this divisible being which founds itself on the constant changeableness of physical substance.
Sat is the divine counterpart of physical substance. Isha Upanishad: Analysis 29 Chit-Tapas is pure energy of Consciousness, free in its rest or its action, sovereign in its will, as opposed to the hampered dynamic energies of Prana which, feeding upon physical substances, are dependent on and limited by their sustenance.
Ananda is Beatitude, the bliss of pure conscious existence and energy, as opposed to the life of the sensations and emotions which are at the mercy of the outward touches of Life and Matter and their positive and negative reactions, joy and grief, pleasure and pain. Ananda is the divine counterpart of the lower emotional and sensational being. This higher existence, proper to the divine Sachchidananda, is unied, self-existent, not confused by the gures of Birth and Death.
It is called, therefore, Amritam, Immortality, and offered to us as the goal to be aimed at and the felicity to be enjoyed when we have transcended the state of death. Verses 11, 14, 17, 18 The higher divine is linked to the lower mortal existence by the causal Idea6 or supramental Knowledge-Will, Vijnana. It is the causal Idea which, by supporting and secretly guiding the confused activities of the Mind, Life and Body, ensures and compels the right arrangement of the universe. It is called in the Veda the Truth because it represents by direct vision the truth of things both inclusive and independent of their appearances; the Right or Law, because, containing in itself the effective power of Chit, it works out all things according to their nature with a perfect knowledge and prevision; the Vast, because it is of the nature of an innite cosmic Intelligence comprehensive of all particular activities.
Vijnana, as the Truth, leads the divided consciousness back 5 Therefore physical substance is called in the Upanishads Annam, Food. In its origin, however, the word meant simply being or substance.
It is power that acts and effectuates, as well as knowledge master of its own action. It also sees the truth of things in the multiplicity. Vijnana is the divine counterpart of the lower divided intelligence.
These seven powers of Chit are spoken of by the Vedic Rishis as the Waters, they are imaged as currents owing into or rising out of the general sea of Consciousness in the human being. They are actually involved in physical Nature and must necessarily evolve out of it. They can be withdrawn into pure innite Being and can again be manifested out of it.
The infolding and unfolding of the One in the Many and the Many in the One is therefore the law of the eternally recurrent cosmic Cycles.
We have to perceive Brahman comprehensively as both the Stable and the Moving. We must see It in eternal and immutable Spirit and in all the changing manifestations of universe and relativity.
We have to perceive all things in Space and Time, the far and the near, the immemorial Past, the immediate Present, the innite Future with all their contents and happenings as the One Brahman.
We have to perceive Brahman as that which exceeds, contains and supports all individual things as well as all universe, transcendentally of Time and Space and Causality. We have to perceive It also as that which lives in and possesses the universe and all it contains. This is the transcendental, universal and individual Brahman, Lord, Continent and Indwelling Spirit, which is the object of all knowledge.
Its realisation is the condition of perfection and the way of Immortality. Everything that changes in us, mind, life, body, character, temperament, action, is not our real and unchanging self, but becomings of the Self in the movement, jagat.
In Nature, therefore, all things that exist, animate or inanimate, are becomings of the one Self of all. All these different creatures are one indivisible existence. This is the truth each being has to realise. When this unity has been realised by the individual in every part of his being, he becomes perfect, pure, liberated from ego and the dualities, possessed of the entire divine felicity.
ATMAN Atman, our true self, is Brahman; it is pure indivisible Being, selfluminous, self-concentrated in consciousness, self-concentrated in force, self-delighted. Its existence is light and bliss. It is timeless, spaceless and free. He in whom it is the Self-Being that has become all existences that are Becomings, for he has the perfect knowledge, how shall he be deluded, whence shall he have grief who sees everywhere oneness?
These three states are Akshara, unmoving or immutable; Kshara, moving or mutable; and Para or Uttama, Supreme or Highest. Kshara Purusha is the Self reecting the changes and movements of Nature, participating in them, immersed in the consciousness of the movement and seeming in it to be born and die, increase and diminish, progress and change.
Atman, as the Kshara, enjoys change and division and duality; controls secretly its own changes but seems to be controlled by them; enjoys the oppositions of pleasure and pain, good and bad, but appears to be their victim; possesses and upholds the action of Nature, by which it seems to be created. For, always and inalienably, the Self is Ishwara, the Lord.
Akshara Purusha is the Self standing back from the changes and movements of Nature, calm, pure, impartial, indifferent, watching them and not participating, above them as on a summit, not immersed in these Waters.
This calm Self is the sky that never moves and changes looking down upon the waters that are never at rest. The Akshara is the hidden freedom of the Kshara. Para Purusha or Purushottama is the Self containing and enjoying both the stillness and the movement, but conditioned and limited by neither of them.
It is this supreme Self that has to be realised in both the unmoving and the mutable. See also XIII passim. Isha Upanishad: Analysis 33 In the physical consciousness Atman becomes the material being, annamaya purusa. In the vital or nervous consciousness Atman becomes the.
In the mental consciousness Atman becomes the mental being, manomaya purusa. In the supra-intellectual consciousness, dominated by the Truth or causal Idea called in Veda Satyam, Ritam, Brihat, the True, the Right, the Vast , Atman becomes the ideal being or great Soul, vijnanamaya purusa or mahat atman. In the consciousness proper to the universal Beatitude, Atman becomes the all-blissful being or all-enjoying and all productive Soul, anandamaya purusa. In the consciousness proper to the innite divine selfawareness which is also the innite all-effective Will ChitTapas , Atman is the all-conscious Soul that is source and lord of the universe, caitanya purusa.
In the consciousness proper to the state of pure divine existence Atman is sat purusa, the pure divine Self. Man, being one in his true Self with the Lord who inhabits all forms, can live in any of these states of the Self in the world and partake of its experiences. He can be anything he wills from the material to the all-blissful being. Through the Anandamaya he can enter into the Chaitanya and Sat Purusha. Mind, life and body are the lower. The state of Sachchidananda is the higher half of universal existence, parardha, the nature of which is Immortality, Amritam.
The state of mental existence in Matter is the lower half, 3 The mahat atman or Vast Self is frequently referred to in the Upanishads. It is also called bhuma, the Large. Mind and life in the body are in the state of Death because by Ignorance they fail to realise Sachchidananda.
Realising perfectly Sachchidananda, they can convert themselves, Mind into the nature of the Truth, Vijnana, Life into the nature of Chaitanya, Body into the nature of Sat, that is, into the pure essence. When this cannot be done perfectly in the body, the soul realises its true state in other forms of existence or worlds, the sunlit worlds and states of felicity, and returns upon material existence to complete its evolution in the body.
A progressively perfect realisation in the body is the aim of human evolution. It is also possible for the soul to withdraw for an indenable period into the pure state of Sachchidananda.
The realisation of the Self as Sachchidananda is the aim of human existence. In fact, it does both simultaneously. Verse 8 The Lord pervades the universe as the Virat Purusha, the Cosmic Soul paribhu of the eighth verse, the One who becomes everywhere ; He enters into each object in the movement, to the Knowledge as Brahman supporting individual consciousness and individual form, to the Ignorance as an individualised and limited being.
He manifests as the Jivatman or individual self in the living creature. From the standpoint of our lower state in the kingdom of death and limitation Atman is Sachchidananda, supra-mental, 4 I have collected under this and the preceding headings the principal ideas of the Upanishads with regard to the Self, although not expressly mentioned or alluded to in our text, because they are indispensable to an understanding of the complete philosophy of these Scriptures and to the relations of the thought which is developed in the Isha.
Isha Upanishad: Analysis 35 but reected in the mind. If the mind is pure, bright and still, there is the right reection; if it is unpuried, troubled and obscured, the reection is distorted and subjected to the crooked action of the Ignorance. According to the state of the reecting mind we may have either purity of self-knowledge or an obscuration and distortion of knowledge in the dualities of truth and error; a pure activity of unegoistic Will or an obscuration and deection of Will in the dualities of right and wrong action, sin and virtue; a pure state and unmixed play of beatitude or an obscuration and perversion of it in the dualities of right and wrong enjoyment, pleasure and pain, joy and grief.
It is the mental ego-sense that creates this distortion by division and limitation of the Self. The limitation is brought about through the Kshara Purusha identifying itself with the changeable formations of Nature in the separate body, the individual life and the egoistic mind, to the exclusion of the sense of unity with all existence and with all existences.
This exclusion is a xed habit of the understanding due to our past evolution in the movement, not an ineffugable law of human consciousness. Its diminution and nal disappearance are the condition of self-realisation. The beginning of wisdom, perfection and beatitude is the vision of the One. Its early or crude form is the attempt to understand or sympathise with others, the tendency of a widening love or compassion or fellow-feeling for others, the impulsion of work for the sake of others.
The oneness so realised is a pluralistic unity, the drawing together of similar units resulting in a collectivity or solidarity 36 Isha Upanishad: Part One rather than in real oneness. The Many remain to the consciousness as the real existences; the One is only their result. Real knowledge begins with the perception of essential oneness, one Matter, one Life, one Mind, one Soul playing in many forms. When this Soul of things is seen to be Sachchidananda, then knowledge is perfected.
For we see Matter to be only a play of Life, Life a play of Mind energising itself in substance, Mind a play of Truth or causal Idea representing truth of being variously in all possible mental forms, Truth a play of Sachchidananda, Sachchidananda the self-manifestation of a supreme Unknowable, Para-Brahman or Para-Purusha. We perceive the soul in all bodies to be this one Self or Sachchidananda multiplying itself in individual consciousness.
We see also all minds, lives, bodies to be active formations of the same existence in the extended being of the Self. This is the vision of all existences in the Self and of the Self in all existences which is the foundation of perfect internal liberty and perfect joy and peace. For by this vision, in proportion as it increases in intensity and completeness, there disappears from the individual mental ity all jugupsa, that is to say, all repulsion, shrinking, dislike, fear, hatred and other perversions of feeling which arise from division and personal opposition to other beings or to the objectivities that surround us.
Perfect equality5 of soul is established. The whole inner life must be changed so as to represent perfectly in all parts of the being what is understood by the intellect and seen by the inner perception. Jugupsa is the feeling of repulsion caused by the sense of a want of harmony between ones own limited self-formation and the contacts of the external with a consequent recoil of grief, fear, hatred, discomfort, suffering.
It is the opposite of attraction which is the source of desire and attachment. Repulsion and attraction removed, we have samatva. Isha Upanishad: Analysis 37 In the individual soul extending itself to the All by the vision of unity ekatvam anupa yatah, seeing everywhere oneness , ars. That is to say, the human or egoistic view is that of a world of innumerable separate creatures each self-existent and different from the others, each trying to get its utmost possible prot out of the others and the world, but the divine view, the way in which God sees the world, is Himself, as the sole Being, living in innumerable existences that are Himself, supporting all, helping all impartially, working out to a divine fullment and under terms xed from the beginning, from years sempiternal, a great progressive harmony of Becoming whose last term is Sachchidananda or Immortality.
This is the view-point of the Self as Lord inhabiting the whole movement.
The individual soul has to change the human or egoistic for the divine, supreme and universal view and live in that realisation. It is necessary, therefore, to have the knowledge of the transcendent Self, the sole unity, in the equation soham, I am He, and in that knowledge to extend ones conscious existence so as to embrace the whole Multiplicity.
This is the double or synthetic ideal of the Isha Upanishad; to embrace simultaneously Vidya and Avidya, the One and the Many; to exist in the world, but change the terms of the Death into the terms of the Immortality; to have the freedom and peace of the Non-Birth simultaneously with the activity of the Birth.
Verses 9 14 All parts of the lower being must consent to this realisation; to perceive with the intellect is not enough. The heart must consent in a universal love and delight, the sense-mind in a sensation of God and self everywhere, the life in the comprehension of all aims and energies in the world as part of its own being.
There is no possibility of self-delusion moha ; for the soul, having attained to the perception of the Unknowable behind all existence, is no longer attached to the Becoming and no longer attributes an absolute value to any particularity in the universe, as if that were an object in itself and desirable in itself. All is enjoyable and has a value as the manifestation of the Self and for the sake of the Self which is manifested in it, but none for its own.
There is no possibility of sorrow; for all is seen as Sachchidananda and therefore in the terms of the innite conscious existence, the innite will, the innite felicity. Even pain and grief are seen to be perverse terms of Ananda, and that Ananda which they veil here and for which they prepare the lower existence for all suffering in the evolution is a preparation of strength and bliss is already seized, known and enjoyed by the soul thus liberated and perfected.
For it possesses the eternal Reality of which they are the appearances. Thus it is possible, by the realisation of the unity of God and the world s and jagat in the complete knowledge of the Brahman, to renounce desire and illusion through the ascent to the pure Self and the Non-Becoming and yet to enjoy by means of all things in the manifestation God in the universe through a free and illuminated self-identication with Sachchidananda in all existences. The rst line, asserting that all 6 Brihadaranyaka Upanishad.
Isha Upanishad: Analysis 39 souls are the one Lord inhabiting every object in the universe and that every object is universe in universe, movement in the general movement, has been explained in the terms of complete oneness by the Brahman, transcendental and universal even in the individual, One in the Many, Many in the One, Stable and Motional, exceeding and reconciling all opposites. The second line, xing as the rule of divine life universal renunciation of desire as the condition of universal enjoyment in the spirit, has been explained by the state of self-realisation, the realisation of the free and transcendent Self as ones own true being, of that Self as Sachchidananda and of the universe seen as the Becoming of Sachchidananda and possessed in the terms of the right knowledge and no longer in the terms of the Ignorance which is the cause of all attraction and repulsion, self-delusion and sorrow.
It is an error to conceive that the Upanishads teach the true existence only of an impersonal and actionless Brahman, an impersonal God without power or qualities. They declare rather an Unknowable that manifests itself to us in a double aspect of Personality and Impersonality. When they wish to speak of this Unknowable in the most comprehensive and general way, they use the neuter and call It Tat, That; but this neuter does not exclude the aspect of universal and transcendent Personality acting and governing the world cf.
Kena Upanishad III. The Seer, the Thinker, the One who becomes everywhere, the Self-existent has ordered objects perfectly according to their nature from years sempiternal. The Isha Upanishad, having declared the Brahman as the sole reality manifesting itself in many aspects and forms, having presented this Brahman subjectively as the Self, the one Being of whom all existences are Becomings, and as that which we have to realise in ourselves and in all things and beyond all things, now proceeds to assert the same Brahman more objectively as the Lord, the Purusha who both contains and inhabits the universe.
It is He that went abroad. This Brahman, this Self is identical with the Lord, the Ish, with whose name the Upanishad opens, the Inhabitant of all forms: and, as we shall nd, identical with the universal Purusha of the 16th verse, The Purusha there and there, He am I.
It is He who has become all things and beings, a conscious Being, the sole Existent and Self-existent, who is Master and Enjoyer of all He becomes. And the Upanishad proceeds to formulate the nature and manner, the general law of that becoming of God which we call the world. For on this conception depends the Vedic idea of the two poles of death and immortality, the reason for the existence of Avidya, the Ignorance, and the justication of works in the world.
Personality is generally conceived as identical with individuality and the vulgar idea of a Personal God is a magnied individual like man in His nature but yet different, greater, more vast and all-overpowering.