Weaver is the author of many scientific papers resulting from research funded by the .. Fifth Edition Reviewers Chi-Lien Cheng Third Edition Reviewers Second. by Save PDF. Pages · · MB · 38, Downloads ·English. by Robert F. Weaver. biology molecular biology biologie. Via a storytelling approach and extensive online support, Human Biology: Concepts and Current Points, Seventh Edition not only demystifies how the human.
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In , a website was created expounding Pauling's treatment which it referred to as Pauling Therapy. Proponents of Pauling Therapy believe that heart disease can be treated and even cured using only lysine and Vitamin C and without drugs or heart operations. Pauling's work on vitamin C in his later years generated much controversy. He was first introduced to the concept of high-dose vitamin C by biochemist Irwin Stone in He began a long clinical collaboration with the British cancer surgeon Ewan Cameron in on the use of intravenous and oral vitamin C as cancer therapy for terminal patients.
Pauling made vitamin C popular with the public  and eventually published two studies of a group of allegedly terminal patients that claimed vitamin C increased survival by as much as four times compared to untreated patients. A re-evaluation of the claims in found that the patient groups were not actually comparable, with the vitamin C group being less sick on entry to the study, and judged to be "terminal" much earlier than the comparison group.
Pauling also criticised the Mayo clinic studies because the controls were taking vitamin C during the trial, and because the duration of the treatment with vitamin C was short; Pauling advocated continued high-dose vitamin C for the rest of the cancer patient's life whereas the Mayo clinic patients in the second trial were treated with vitamin C for a median of 2.
Ultimately the negative findings of the Mayo Clinic studies ended general interest in vitamin C as a treatment for cancer. Pauling married Ava Helen Miller on June 17, The marriage lasted until Ava Pauling's death in They had four children. Pauling was raised as a member of the Lutheran Church,  but later joined the Unitarian Universalist Church.
He decided it was safest to stay there, and meanwhile he was reported missing. He spent a sleepless night on the cliff before being found after almost 24 hours. Pauling died of prostate cancer on August 19, , at Pauling's discoveries led to decisive contributions in a diverse array of areas including around publications in the fields of quantum mechanics, inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, protein structure, molecular biology, and medicine.
His work on chemical bonding marks him as one of the founders of modern quantum chemistry. While his Valence bond approach fell short of accounting quantitatively for some of the characteristics of molecules, such as the color of organometallic complexes, and would later be eclipsed by the molecular orbital theory of Robert Mulliken , Valence Bond Theory still competes, in its modern form, with Molecular Orbital Theory and density functional theory DFT as a way of describing the chemical phenomena.
Francis Crick acknowledged Pauling as the "father of molecular biology ". Pauling's publication with Robert B. Corey and H. Branson, "The Structure of Proteins: Two Hydrogen-Bonded Helical Configurations of the Polypeptide Chain," was a key early finding in the then newly emerging field of molecular biology. The Pauling Centre for Human Sciences at the University of Oxford was named after Linus Pauling in honour of his contribution across both the sciences and humanities.
His work in establishing the field of molecular biology; his studies of hemoglobin led to the classification of sickle cell anemia as a molecular disease. The induction ceremony took place December 15, Pauling's son was asked to accept the honor in his place.
By proclamation of Gov. The asteroid Pauling in the inner asteroid belt, discovered by Eleanor F. Helin , was named after Linus Pauling in , on his 90th birthday. Linus Torvalds , developer of the Linux kernel, is named after Pauling. Nobel laureate Peter Agre has said that Linus Pauling inspired him. Pauling received numerous awards and honors during his career, including the following: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Linus Pauling. Portland , Oregon , U. Big Sur , California , U. Alpha sheet Beta sheet Bond order Coiled coil Corey-Pauling rules CPK coloring Crystal structure prediction Electronegativity Elucidating chemical bonds and molecular structures Ice-type model Linear combination of atomic orbitals Molecular clock Molecular medicine Orbital overlap Pauling's rules Pauling—Corey—Branson alpha helix Pauling's principle of electroneutrality Quantum chemistry Quantum graph Resonance chemistry Space-filling model Valence bond theory Vitamin C megadosage Xenic acid Advocating nuclear disarmament.
Ava Helen Miller m. Quantum chemistry Biochemistry. Truman of the United States. Lewis medal, California section of the American Chemical Society. Roebling Medal, Mineralogical Society of America. Ford of the United States. Lattimer Award, American Urological Association. Sackler Foundation. Oregon State University Libraries. Retrieved 27 May The determination with x-rays of the structures of crystals PhD thesis.
California Institute of Technology. Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. Pauling, Jr. Selected papers of Linus Pauling Volume I ed.
River Edge, NJ: World Scientific. Linus C. Pauling — Stubbornly Ahead of His Time". Scientific American. The scientific Secaucus, NY: Carol Publ. Retrieved 26 May The Scientists: New York: Random House. The healing factor: Perigee Books. The Atlantic. Retrieved 19 July Nobel Foundation.
Retrieved August 5, Nobel Media AB. Retrieved 14 January Special collections. Retrieved April 25, Tracking the entire world. Soylent Communications. The Nobel Peace Prize and the laureates: Byers Encyclopedia of World Biography.
Thomson Gale. Greenwood, SC. Oregon State University. Retrieved April 29, Special Collections and Archives Research Center. He is also an assistant to Samuel H. Graf in a mechanics and materials course. Marinacci, Barbara, ed. Linus Pauling: Graf gave me a job correcting papers in the courses he taught, about statics and dynamics, bridge structure, strength of materials, and so on.
I also helped him in the laboratory. Linus Pauling Institute. Retrieved November 10, The Oregonian. Retrieved June 2, Caltech Campus Publications. Retrieved Realism and anti-realism in the philosophy of science.
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Philadelphia, PA: Chemical Heritage Foundation. The nature of the chemical bond and the structure of molecules and crystals; an introduction to modern structural chemistry 3rd ed. Ithaca NY: Cornell University Press. Retrieved February 29, The transition from one extreme bond type to another". Journal of the American Chemical Society. Force of Nature: The Life of Linus Pauling.
Robert Oppenheimer: Retrieved 18 May In our own image: New York, NY [u. Part 2, Inspired by Biology". The Pauling Blog. Retrieved March 17, The Independent. Retrieved January 25, Linus Pauling, The nature of the chemical bond, A documentary history. Retrieved June 3, The nature of the chemical bond and the structure of molecules and crystals: Ithaca, N. Retrieved 2 June A passion for DNA: Oxford University Press.
Google Scholar. General ideas on bonds". Electronegativity and the Electronegativity Scale". The molecular vision of life: Caltech, the Rockefeller Foundation, and the rise of the new biology. New York [u. Pathways to modern chemical physics.
Heidelberg [Germany]: Brilliant blunders: Two New Pleated Sheets". Archived from the original on February 4, Biochemistry 2nd ed. San Diego: Harcourt, Academic Pr. Cruse, Robert E. Atlas of immunology 3rd ed. Boca Raton, FL: The engineer in the garden: Hill and Wang. Between history and memory" PDF. American Journal of Medical Genetics. Pauling's supporters and detractors join in calling the two-time Nobel winner one of the most significant figures of this century".
Los Angeles Times. August 21, Retrieved 1 June Ava Helen and Linus Pauling Papers. Revue Roumain de Physique. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Robinson Canadian Journal of Physics. Academy of Achievement. February 29, Archived from the original on December 11, Retrieved June 25, Linus Pauling and the International Peace Movement.
Retrieved 27 December Arnold O. Philadelphia, Pa.: Wood Library-Museum of Anesthesiology. Retrieved 28 May The Development of Oxypolygelatin, Part 1". Molecularizing biology and medicine new practices and alliances, ss.
Harwood Academic. Linus Pauling Awards Honors and Medals. Biographical Information". United States National Library of Medicine. Retrieved February 11, New York Times. Retrieved December 9, Linus Pauling — ". ACS Chemistry for Life. Retrieved December 13, Stamp Gallery. The passport was denied because granting it "would not be in the best interest of the United States. I have never been guilty of any unpatriotic or criminal act. VIII, Nr. The new physics: Bonn-Bad Godesberg: Inter Nationes. Retrieved June 1, Nobel Lecture".
Nobel Prize. Retrieved December 10, Disrupting science: Princeton University Press.
Analysis of teeth provides a practicable method of monitoring strontium uptake by human populations". Reclaiming paradise: Indiana University Press. Science, history and social activism: Kluwer Academic. Palo Alto Times. October 10, October 10, ". Pauling said that his Nobel Peace Prize should really have gone to her, or at least been shared between them. June 20, ". Chemical Society Reviews. Retrieved May 20, Linus Pauling as public intellectual". An Interdisciplinary Journal.
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Archived from the original on June 11, Retrieved May 28, International League of Humanists. Archived from the original on September 24, International Academy of Science, Munich. Harvard Magazine. Retrieved October 7, How to Live Longer and Feel Better 1 ed. Avon Books. Retrieved 22 August — via Open Library. Dropsy, dialysis, transplant: Johns Hopkins University Press. Biochemical imbalances in disease a practitioner's handbook. Singing Dragon.
Varying the concentrations of substances normally present in the human body may control mental disease". The alternative medicine handbook: BC Cancer Agency. February Archived from the original on February 2, Ewan Cameron, M.
Pauling Dies at 93; Chemist and Voice for Peace". Prolongation of survival times in terminal human cancer". Reevaluation of prolongation of survival times in terminal human cancer". Your Patient and Cancer. A controlled trial". The New England Journal of Medicine. A randomized double-blind comparison".
Proceedings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. The Cases of Vitamin C and Cancer". University of Chicago Press. How to Live Longer and Feel Better. Freeman and Company. Ralph Pelligra, ed. Human Neurological Development: Abram Hoffer. Anticancer Research.
A Systematic Review". Norman Pace remembers the early days of what became known as "metagenomics," as experienced by the author during his development as a scientist. Rodrigo Almeida argues that considering the social context of emerging plant diseases and effective science communication are essential for the management epidemics.
April 9, Leaves vs Petals: Mutation Rate Variation in Plants Long Wang, Yilun Ji, Yingwen Hu, Sihai Yang, Laurence Hurst, Dacheng Tian and colleagues find that the rates of accumulation of mutations vary between different parts of a plant, with lower rates when mutations have greater potential longevity such as in leaves than in short-lived structures such as petals.
Celebrate our 15th Anniversary! Homeostatic or Allostatic? Research Matters. Poxvirus Research: The Small Things Can Matter Norman Pace remembers the early days of what became known as "metagenomics," as experienced by the author during his development as a scientist. Emerging Plant Disease Epidemics Rodrigo Almeida argues that considering the social context of emerging plant diseases and effective science communication are essential for the management epidemics.
January , Salk Symposium: Chapter 21 provides details of the initiation, elongation, and termination steps in DNA replication in bacteria and eukaryotes.
Chapters 22 and 23 describe DNA rearrangements that occur naturally in cells. Chapter 22 discusses homologous recombination and Chapter 23 deals with translocation.
Chapters 24 and 25 present concepts of genomics, proteomics, and bioinformatics. Chapter 24 begins with an oldfashioned positional cloning story involving the Huntington disease gene and contrasts this lengthy and heroic quest with the relative ease of performing positional cloning with the human genome and other genomes.
Chapter 25 deals with functional genomics transcriptomics , proteomics, and bioinformatics.
New to the Fifth Edition The most obvious change in the fifth edition is the splitting of old Chapter 24 Genomics, Proteomics, and Bioinformatics in two. This chapter was already the longest in the book, and the field it represents is growing explosively, so a split was inevitable. The new Chapter 24 deals with classical genomics: the sequencing and comparison of genomes. New material in Chapter 24 includes an analysis of the similarity between the human and chimpanzee genomes, and a look at the even closer similarity between the human and Neanderthal genomes, including recent evidence for interbreeding between humans and Neanderthals.
It also includes an update on the new field of synthetic biology, made possible by genomic work on microorganisms, and contains a report of the recent success by Craig Venter and colleagues in creating a living Mycoplasma cell with a synthetic genome.
Chapter 25 deals with fields allied with Genomics: Functional Genomics, Proteomics, and Bioinformatics. New material in Chapter 25 includes new applications of the ChIP-chip and ChIP-seq techniques—the latter using next-generation DNA sequencing; collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry, which can be used to sequence proteins; and the use of isotope-coded affinity tags ICATs and stable isotope labeling by amino acids SILAC to make mass spectrometry MS quantitative.
Quantitative MS in turn enables comparative proteomics, in which the concentrations of large numbers of proteins can be compared between species. All but the introductory chapters of this fifth edition have been updated. These have revolutionized the field of genomics. Chromatin immunoprecipitation ChIP and the yeast two-hybrid assay have been moved to Chapter 5, in light of their broad applicabilities. A treatment of the energies of the b-electrons from 3H, 14C, 35S, and 32P has been added, and the fluorography technique, which captures information from the lower-energy emissions, is discussed.
This chapter also updates the structure of the bacterial elongation complex, including a discussion of a two-state model for nucleotide addition. This chapter also introduces a hammerhead ribozyme as a possible mammalian riboswitch that may operate by a similar mechanism.
This chapter also introduces the concepts of core promoter and proximal promoter, where the core promoter contains any combination of TFIIB recognition element, TATA box, initiator, downstream promoter element, downstream core element, and motif ten element, and the proximal promoter contains upstream promoter elements.
This chapter also describes an experiment that shows the importance of TFIIB in setting the start site of transcription.
It also shows that a similar mechanism applies in the archaea, which use a TFIIB homolog known as transcription factor B. It also introduces the concept of transcription factories, where transcription of multiple genes occurs. Finally, this chapter refines and updates the concept of the enhanceosome. This chapter also introduces the concept of specific histone methylations as markers for transcription initiation and elongation, and shows how this information can be used to infer that RNA polymerase II is poised between initiation and elongation on many human protein-encoding genes.
It also emphasizes the importance of histone modifications in affecting not only histone—DNA interactions, but also nucleosome—nucleosome interactions and recruitment of histone-modifying and chromatinremodeling proteins.